Ithkuil: A Philosophical Design for a Hypothetical Language




Home   Introduction 4 Case Morphology 8 Adjuncts 12 The Number System
  1 Phonology 5 Verb Morphology 9 Syntax List of Abbreviations
  2 Morpho-Phonology 6 More Verb Morphology 10 Lexico-Semantics The Lexicon
Updates / Changes   3 Basic Morphology 7 Suffixes 11 The Writing System Texts



Chapter 7: Suffixes

    7.1 VxC Suffixes   7.3 Special Use of V3C Suffixes  
    7.2 Suffix-Types   7.4 List of Suffixes  

As we have seen in previous chapters, Ithkuil, like most languages, employs affixes (including both prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) in its morphology. However, one type of affix to the formative, the Vx+C suffix from Slot XI, operates in a manner warranting separate analysis. This chapter describes the morpho-phonological structure of these Vx+C suffixes (how they are formed from consonants and vowels), as well as their function.

Ci +Vi

Phase +
(+ Illocution)

(+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
Illocution +
Mood +
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Context + Format
tion + Relation



All Ithkuil affixes we have analyzed up to this point, whether prefixes or infixes, have consisted of either a single vocalic form (i.e., a single vowel, a diphthong, or a dyssyllabic vocalic conjunct), or a single consonantal form (i.e., a single consonant, a geminated consonant, or a consonant cluster), each of which has been invariable in its form. Furthermore, we have found that only one such affix can occupy its given slot in the formative’s structure.

However, the VxC suffix from Slot XI is different in three respects: (1) it is comprised of both a vowel form and a consonantal form, (2) the vocalic portion of the suffix can mutate, and (3) more than one VxC suffix can occupy Slot XI in the formative (i.e., VxC suffixes can be strung together sequentially one after the other).

7.1.1 Mutation of the Vowel Vx

While the consonantal portion of the suffix, C, is always invariable, the vocalic portion Vx mutates depending on two morphological factors known as degree and suffix-type. The nine different degrees will be discussed in detail in the next section below. As for suffix-type, every consonantal-based Vx+C suffix falls into one of three types, which determine what vowel or vowels will come before the invariable consonant C. The three suffix-types are labelled V1, V2, and V3, in reference to the vowel portion of the suffix.

7.1.2 Degree And Degree-Shifting

In addition to the three suffix-types, the vowel(s) associated with suffixes are also determined by degree. There are nine degrees, each of which has three associated vowel infixes corresponding to the three suffix-types. Table 24 below shows the vowel(s) associated with each suffix-type.

Table 24: Vocalic Infixes for Consonantal Suffixes by Suffix Type

Suffix: -V1C
Suffix Type 2: -V2C
Suffix Type 3: -V3C
Degree 1
-iuC / -uaC
Degree 2
-auC /-oaC
Degree 3
Degree 4
-îC / -uëC
-euC / -oeC
-oiC / -öaC
Degree 5
-üaC / -uìC / -iùC
Degree 6
-ûC / -iëC
-eiC / -eoC
-ouC / -öeC
Degree 7
Degree 8
-aiC / -eaC
Degree 9
-iaC / -uiC

Applying the above rules to three example suffixes we can see in Table 25 below how these suffixes would actually appear in conjunction with the word eqal ‘person’ :

TABLE 25: Example of Application of Suffixes to a Stem

Suffix: -V1k
Suffix Type 2: -V2k
Suffix Type 3: -V3k
Degree 1
eqaliuk / eqaluak
Degree 2
eqalauk /eqaloak
Degree 3
Degree 4
eqalîk / eqaluëk
eqaleuk / eqaloek
eqaloik / eqalöak
Degree 5
eqalüak / eqaluìk / eqaliùk
Degree 6
eqalûk / eqaliëk
eqaleik / eqaleok
eqalouk / eqalöek
Degree 7
Degree 8
eqalaik / eqaleak
Degree 9
eqaliak / eqaluik

As for the morpho-syntactic function of Degree, it is used in Ithkuil to create a gradient system for all consonantal suffixes, which generally indicates the degree to which the semantic concept underlying the particular suffix applies to the particular stem. This gradient usually extends from zero-degree (i.e., the particular concept or quality is absent or minimal) to a maximal degree (i.e., the particular concept or quality is present in totality). We will see in the tables of suffixes in Section 7.4 how this gradient system is used systematically in many dynamic semantic contexts. As a preview we can illustrate the meanings associated with the nine degrees for the suffix -V1d.

-id wholly lacking in / a complete absence of / not at all
-öd way too little / totally insufficient(ly) / not anywhere enough
-ed not enough / insufficient(ly) / under-[+verb]
-îd not quite enough / somewhat insufficient(ly) / slightly under-[+verb]
-ad enough (of) / sufficient(ly)
-ûd a little too (much) / more than needed / slightly over-[+verb]
-od too / too much / over-[+verb]
-üd way too much / totally over-[+verb]
-ud nothing but / to the exclusion of all else

There are approximatey 200 different consonantal suffix categories, each of which divides into the nine degrees discussed above to render over 1800 distinct suffixes. Each degree of a suffix has a distinct meaning, often representing a point along a continuum in terms of how much or how little the underlying semantic sense of the suffix category is being manifested by the particular formative.

It is important to remember that, since all morpho-semantic stems are both nominal and verbal in meaning, all suffixes to a stem have both a nominal and a verbal meaning. Therefore, the choice whether to translate the suffixes below into their nominal or verbal meaning is entirely dependent on the morpho-syntactical structure of the word within the context of its use in a phrase or sentence as a whole.

7.1.3 Notational Scheme

For convenience’ sake, when referring to a particular suffix of specific type and degree, we will use the notation in the section above, utilizing a V for the variable vocalic component, a subscript 1, 2, or 3 indicating the suffix-type, followed by a slash and a number indicating the degree. Thus, the suffix -nt of Type 1 and 4th degree will be written -V1nt/4, while the suffix -r of Type 3 and 8th degree will be written -V3r/8, and so forth.


Each suffix category comes in three types, numbered 1, 2, and 3, indicated by variances in the initial vocalic component of the suffix. Use of the Type 1 version of a suffix caries a mere circumstantial meaning applicable to the context at hand in a subjectively incidental, happenstance, temporary, or informal manner, whereas the Type 2 version of a suffix implies a derivational meaning which can entail lexical differences when translating into English.

For example, the Type 1 suffix -up, i.e., -V1p/9, and its Type 2 counterpart -uip , i.e., -V2p/9, which both mean ‘exactly similar to…/identical…,’ the difference in usage being that the Type 1 suffix conveys merely a circumstantial or incidental similarity, while the Type 2 suffix implies that the similarity is an integral aspect of the word. In English, such a distinction would most likely be conveyed by using a different word. For example, note the difference when we add these two suffixes to the Ithkuil word eqal ‘person’: eqalup means ‘identical-looking person,’ whereas eqaluip means ‘twin.’ In this way, we can say that the suffix -Vp with Type 1 vocalic infixes conveys a circumstantial application of its meaning to a stem, while with Type 2 vocalic infixes, it conveys a derivational application of its meaning (i.e., wholly new concepts or words are derived from the stem).

As for Type 3 suffixes, these are used in circumstances where the meaning of the suffix is meant to be applied not to the formative itself, but rather to the immediately adjacent suffix. This is somewhat analogous to the way that adverbs can be used to modify descriptive adjectives in English. For example, in the phrase suddenly blue sky, it is the blueness that is sudden, not the sky. In Ithkuil, Type 3 suffixes modify another suffix (usually the one following, unless there are only two suffixes on the stem, in which case the suffix order is irrelevant); this is done by using Type 3 vocalic infixes. For example, the suffix -Vd/5, which means ‘enough / sufficient(ly),’ can be used both circumstantially (using Type 1 infixes) and derivationally (using Type 2 infixes) to modify a stem, or can be used to modify only the adjacent suffix (using Type 3 infixes). Such suffixes must immediately precede the suffix they are modifying, unless they are in word-final position, in which case they modify the immediately preceding suffix. This is illustrated below:

eqalad: ‘a sufficient person’ (i.e., one able to perform the task at hand)
eqalâd: ‘a recruit’ (i.e., one able to meet performance or entry requirements)
eqalüadûx: ‘a sufficiently large person’ (where suffix -V1x/6 = ‘large’)


7.2.1 Multiple Suffixation and Ordering of Suffixes

When adding two or more suffixes to a stem, the suffixes generally can be added to the stem in any order desired, with the exception of V3C suffixes which modify an adjacent suffix. This latter type must precede the suffix it modifies, unless there are only two VxC suffixes to the word, in which case the order is irrelevant.


Note that when a Type 3 suffix appears alone in Slot XI, unaccompanied by another VxC suffix, it serves a different purpose than normal. Such lone Type 3 suffixes are used as “short-cut” ways of displaying a type of adunct we will discuss in Chapter 8, called a personal reference adjunct. In these cases, the consonant portion of the suffix, rather than repesenting its usual suffix category, instead corresponds to one of the numerous personal reference categories we will discuss in Chapter 8, while the vowel portion of the suffix, rather than corresponding to one of nine degrees, instead correponds to one of nine noun cases. The details for utilizing these special V3C suffixes are discussed in Section 8.1.5.


The 200 suffix categories are listed in the sections which follow, indicating the difference in meaning for each of the nine degrees. Recall that each of these suffixes may (theoretically) function as both Type 1 and Type 2 suffixes, the latter type often entailing a change of meaning or lexical shift when translating into English.

7.4.1 Demonstrative Suffixes

These suffixes correspond to various determiners and modifying adjectives in English having to do with denoting or identifying a noun within a larger context or discourse.

Degree Of Definiteness
Degree 1 any (number of) [random selection - NOT quantitative/partitive “any”]; in any manner
Degree 2 almost any; in almost any (number of) way(s)
Degree 3 some X or other; in some way or other
Degree 4 some certain X ; in some certain way [identity unknown]
Degree 5 this X or that; a certain X or more; in this way or that [identity almost known – choices limited]
Degree 6 a certain / a particular; in a certain or particular way [identity ascertainable]
Degree 7 presumably this/that; apparently this X ; in that way presumably [tentatively identified]
Degree 8 this/that/said; in said manner/(in) that way [identity known]
Degree 9 at hand/under discussion/this one now/instant; in this manner [identity = present context]

Degree Of Discretion
Degree 1 announced/advertised/heralded; w/ public disclosure
Degree 2 open & well-known; with full public knowledge
Degree 3 open/public; for all to see/publicly/openly
Degree 4 shown, open, or available by request/ by request
Degree 5 semi-public(ly), exclusive(ly)
Degree 6 own/personal; personally
Degree 7 own private; privately
Degree 8 secret; secretly
Degree 9 confidential/classified


Degree Of Inclusion
Degree 1 not a(ny), not one, no X whatsoever, none of X; in no such manner
Degree 2 hardly any, barely any X; in hardly any such manner
Degree 3 some few/a few certain … ; in a few certain ways
Degree 4 some (of)/certain . . .; in certain ways
Degree 5 several / more than a few / various / in various ways / in several different ways
Degree 6 a significant portion of/a fair number of; in a fair number of ways
Degree 7 most/in most ways
Degree 8 almost every; in almost every way
Degree 9 each/every; in each way


-rţ / -ţr
Exactness of Identity / Identity As a Referent Or Standard
Degree 1 nothing like that X; nothing like that ; in no way similar
Degree 2 somewhat like that X; somewhat so
Degree 3 nearly or almost that X; nearly or almost so
Degree 4 just about . . . / for all intents and purposes
Degree 5 kind of / type of / this sort of; typically
Degree 6 such (a); in such a manner
Degree 7 clear (case of); clearly / certainly / indeed[in negative sentences = no way / at all]
Degree 8 just like that; just so, thus(ly)
Degree 9 the exact X / the very (one); exactly thus / exactly so


Degree Of Familiarity
Degree 1 unknowable / alien; unable to even try X-ing
Degree 2 totally unfamiliar; totally unaccustomed to X-ing
Degree 3 unfamiliar; unaccustomed to X-ing
Degree 4 somewhat unfamiliar; somewhat unaccustomed to X-ing
Degree 5 only just (recently) familiar; only just recently familiar to X-ing
Degree 6 somewhat familiar; somewhat accustomed to X-ing
Degree 7 familiar/known; accustomed to X-ing
Degree 8 well-known / utterly familiar with / ingrained; inherently accustomed or used to X-ing
Degree 9 intimate with; intimately involved with / intimately accustomed to


Degree Of Similarity
Degree 1 opposite; as different as possible / at the other extreme
Degree 2 completely different/dissimilar; in a totally different or dissimilar way
Degree 3 rather different / barely similar / almost completely different or dissimilar; in an almost completely different way
Degree 4 other [=different]; in another [=different] way
Degree 5 somewhat different, only superficially similar; somewhat differently
Degree 6 similar in the ways that count/similar down deep, some sort of X; similarly at deep level
Degree 7 (somewhat) similar, only superficially different, sort of like, something like, X-like; similarly
Degree 8 very similar; very similarly
Degree 9 [exactly the] same, indistinguishable from; in the [exactly] same way


7.4.2 Deictic Suffixes

Deictic suffixes refer to the grammatical process of deixis, the act of pointing to or pointing out. The suffixes correspond to the different variants of the concepts of ‘here’ and ‘there.’ In Ithkuil, distinctions are made in these suffixes as to whether a referent is near the speaker, near the listener, distant from both, whether it is observable or accessible, and in some case, whether it is alienable or inalienable (i.e., whether the entity can be separated from the associated person).

Deixis Categories
Degree 1 yonder / way over there somewhere / a long way away (not near anyone) [inaccessible or unobservable]
Degree 2 over there somewhere (by third party) [inaccessible or observable]
Degree 3 there somewhere (by listener) [inaccessible or observable]
Degree 4 here somewhere (by speaker] [inaccessible or observable]
Degree 5 here (by speaker and accessible]
Degree 6 here with us (by speaker and listener and accessible]
Degree 7 there [by listener and accessible]
Degree 8 there (by third party, but accessible to speaker and listener)
Degree 9 yonder / way over there [not near any party but accessible]


Additional Deixis Categories
Degree 1 spread out/ everywhere / scattered yonder / all over out there [inaccessible]
Degree 2 spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about listener / all over the place around listener [inaccessible]
Degree 3 spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about speaker / all over the place / here and there [inaccessible]
Degree 4 spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about speaker / all over / here & there [observable but inaccessible]
Degree 5 spread out/ everywhere / scattered all throughout speaker / enveloping speaker [inalienable]
Degree 6 spread out/ everywhere / scattered all throughout speaker / enveloping speaker [alienable]
Degree 7 spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about speaker/all over the place / here and there [accessible]
Degree 8 spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about listener / all over the place around listener [accessible]
Degree 9 spread out/ everywhere / scattered yonder / all over out there [accessible]

7.4.3 Sequential Suffixes

Numerical Sequence
Degree 1 first / initial; first(ly) / first of all
Degree 2 second; secondly
Degree 3 third; thirdly
Degree 4 still near the beginning / not yet halfway
Degree 5 the middle one, in between (sequentially)/ just about halfway there
Degree 6 nearing the end
Degree 7 third from last; antepenultimately
Degree 8 next to last; penultimately
Degree 9 last / final; last(ly) / finally (in terms of sequence)


-nš / -šn
Sequence Relative to Present Context
Degree 1 immediately beforehand / first
Degree 2 one before preceding
Degree 3 the former; primarily
Degree 4 two before preceding
Degree 5 current/at hand; now/currently / at the moment [in sequence of events]
Degree 6 second one after next
Degree 7 the latter; secondarily
Degree 8 one after next
Degree 9 next / following; then / next


Sequence of Cause and Effect
Degree 1 originating; originally / in the first place / initially / at the outset
Degree 2 preliminary; preliminarily
Degree 3 preparatory / in preparation for / getting ready to
Degree 4 awaited; waiting to/ waiting for [focus on imminency or sequential position, NOT on anticipation]
Degree 5 precursor to; but just beforehand
Degree 6 based on the preceding and setting the stage for what follows
Degree 7 eventual / at last; at last / finally (result)
Degree 8 following /...which follows; then subsequent to that / following that...
Degree 9 subsequent / consequent; then / so / thus / therefore

7.4.4 Coordinative Suffixes

Adjunctive Coordination
Degree 1 in conjunction with / combined with / including X
Degree 2 and / also / additionally/ furthermore/ moreover/ what’s more
Degree 3 . . . and so forth / and so on / and all that/ and whatever else
Degree 4 and at the same time / and simultaneously
Degree 5 and [all in a series]
Degree 6 or [potentially inclusive] = and/or
Degree 7 either . . . or [exclusive or] / or else
Degree 8 . . . or something else / or whatever / or whatever else
Degree 9 either . . . or [exclusive or in a series]


Contrastive Coordination
Degree 1 still / nevertheless / however — (despite seemingly inherent conflict or contradiction)
Degree 2 besides / not just . . . but also / in addition to X… also
Degree 3 even / or even / … still [e.g., thicker still]
Degree 4 or [= otherwise]
Degree 5 as opposed to / but not
Degree 6 but [qualifying]
Degree 7 however / on the other hand — (simple difference in expected outcome, no inherent conflict)
Degree 8 but (rather) [= substitute]
Degree 9 just in case / should the need arise


-nz / -zn
Distributive Coordination
Degree 1 applying to each equally [unfairly]
Degree 2 applied selectively by decision/preference [unfairly]
Degree 3 respectively (=to each) but in differing amounts [unfairly]
Degree 4 selectively at random [unfairly]
Degree 5 respectively [= applied in the sequentially spoken order]
Degree 6 selectively at random [fairly]
Degree 7 respectively (=to each) but in differing amounts [fairly]
Degree 8 applied selectively by decision/calculation [fairly]
Degree 9 applying to each equally [fairly]


7.4.5 Temporal Suffixes

Impact or Duration Over Time
Degree 1 immediate / at this instant / for this moment; momentary
Degree 2 temporary / for right now / for the moment; temporarily / in the meantime [duration of context. recent]
Degree 3 short term/for now; in the short term/for now/ / for the immediate future [hours to days]
Degree 4 for the meantime / for the meanwhile [days to weeks to months]
Degree 5 for a while / for some time to come [months to several years]
Degree 6 for the foreseeable future [years to decades]
Degree 7 long term/in the long run; over the course of time [over the course of a lifetime, decades to centuries]
Degree 8 through the ages / over the course of the ages [centuries to millenia]; permanent
Degree 9 ever-present / eternal / constant / incessant / neverending; from now on / eternally / all the time / for all time


Temporary Duration
Degree 1 brief, momentary (lasting a few seconds)
Degree 2 for a "minute"
Degree 3 for a few minutes (e.g., "while you wait")
Degree 4 for a little while (i.e., up to an hour approximately)
Degree 5 for a while (i.e., from one to several hours)
Degree 6 for today (i.e., from several hours to 24 hours approximately)
Degree 7 for one or two days
Degree 8 from two to four days
Degree 9 up to a week


Degree Of Frequency
Degree 1 never
Degree 2 rare / hardly ever / once in a great while; rarely / almost unheard of
Degree 3 infrequent; seldom / infrequently
Degree 4 now and then / from time to time / off and on / every so often / now and again occasionally / sometimes
Degree 5 frequent; frequently / often
Degree 6 usual; usually / customarily / generally
Degree 7 almost always / rarely fail to / routinely
Degree 8 ever-faithful / unwavering; always / every time / without fail / like clockwork / never fail to
Degree 9 constant / continuous; constantly / continuously / all the time


Temporal Placement/Reaction/Viewpoint
Degree 1 wistfully looking back / in the (good) old days [with longing]
Degree 2 in hindsight / looking back
Degree 3 upon further consideration/upon reflection
Degree 4 initial; at first/initially / at first blush / at first glance
Degree 5 now that the moment has come / now that the time is here / now that the deed or event is at hand
Degree 6 any moment now; on the verge of; just about to
Degree 7 imminent(ly) ; very soon
Degree 8 soon [w/ anticipation]
Degree 9 someday. . . / one day [with longing]


Temporal Position Relative to Present
Degree 1 in the remote past, once upon a time
Degree 2 past/former/previous; once [e.g., I was young once], a long time ago
Degree 3 recent; recently
Degree 4 . . . just past / just (happened)
Degree 5 present/current/present day; now / at present / presently / currently
Degree 6 imminent; just about to / about to / on the verge of
Degree 7 forthcoming / soon to arrive; soon
Degree 8 future / -- to be / --to come / eventual(ly); someday...
Degree 9 in the remote future / far in the future / long after we’re gone

Degree Of Anticipation
Degree 1 long-awaited / long looked for
Degree 2 eagerly awaited; can’t wait for / dying to
Degree 3 anticipated / awaited; in anticipation of / look forward to
Degree 4 up for / up to
Degree 5 await / wait to / wait for / waiting to
Degree 6 ambivalent about ; could take or leave it
Degree 7 not looking forward to
Degree 8 dreaded; dread X-ing
Degree 9 long-dreaded; dread the day when


-nž / -žn
Degree Of Lateness/Earliness
Degree 1 way too early / way too soon
Degree 2 too early / too soon
Degree 3 a little early / a bit soon
Degree 4 almost late / not a moment too soon
Degree 5 just in time / sharp / on the dot
Degree 6 a little late
Degree 7 late
Degree 8 too late
Degree 9 way too late

-nt / -tn
Degree Of Iteration
Degree 1 just once / once only
Degree 2 again / once more / one more time / re-
Degree 3 again and again / keep X-ing over and over [focus on habit, not periodicity]
Degree 4 again and again / keep X-ing over and over [focus on periodicity, not habit]
Degree 5 irregular, unpredictable ; at irregular or unpredictable intervals
Degree 6 [cyclic] return of... / ...once again; return to / …back again [e.g., summer’s back]
Degree 7 intermittent; intermittently / at regular intervals
Degree 8 repetitive / repeating; repeatedly
Degree 9 constantly cycling or repeating / continuously or perpetually repeating / constant, eternal, perpetual repetition of

Pattern of Spatio-Temporal Repetition or Distribution of Set Members
Degree 1 slow-paced repetition at regular intervals
Degree 2 slow-paced repetition at irregular intervals
Degree 3 slow-paced repetition at mixed intervals
Degree 4 mid-paced repetition at irregular intervals
Degree 5 mid-paced repetition at regular intervals
Degree 6 mid-paced repetition at mixed intervals
Degree 7 fast-paced repetition at mixed intervals
Degree 8 fast-paced repetition at irregular intervals
Degree 9 fast-paced repetition at regular intervals


Calendrical Sequencing (used with numerical stems to indicate calendrical concepts)
Degree 1 [sequential number +] day of the week
Degree 2 [sequential number +] day of the month
Degree 3 [sequential number +] day of the year
Degree 4 [sequential number +] week of the month
Degree 5 [sequential number +] month of the year
Degree 6 [sequential number +] year
Degree 7 [sequential number +] decade of the century
Degree 8 [sequential number +] century
Degree 9 [sequential number +] millenium

The V1 value of these suffixes merely indicates sequential position on the calendar, e.g., llalirl 'the first day of the week,' whereas V2 values give the names of the days of the weeks, days of the month, months of the year, etc., e.g., llaluarl 'Sunday,' ksaluarl 'Monday,' ksalârl 'February,' llalökearl 'the 21st Century', mřalik (ňial) xmalukeorl 'the year 1999.'

Note: the CAL suffix inherently conveys Functional (FNC) Context, since calendrical notions are, of course, societal conventions as opposed to being natural ontological concepts. Therefore, for formatives carrying the CAL suffix it is not necessary to inflect for FNC Context.


7.4.6 Quantifying Suffixes

-lz / -zl
Exactness of Degree
Degree 1 unknowable degree or amount of
Degree 2 unknown degree or amount of
Degree 3 almost impossible to determine degree of
Degree 4 nowhere near the desired degree of
Degree 5 hard to pinpoint / hard to determine / difficult to determine
Degree 6 fluctuating, ever-changing (amount of); to changing/fluctuating degree or extent of
Degree 7 vaguely around / vaguely in the range of / somewhere around / loosely in the vicinity of
Degree 8 approximate(ly) / somewhere around / just about; or something like that / …or so
Degree 9 exact/specific; exactly / specifically / on the dot / sharp / to the letter


Contiguous Portion of the Whole
Degree 1 no amount of / none (of)
Degree 2 a very few / a tiny amount of / a tiny number of; only a tiny bit / a tiny bit
Degree 3 few / a little / a bit; a little / a bit
Degree 4 some, any [= some of] / some of or any of the / a portion; partially / to some extent
Degree 5 a fair number of / a fair amount of / pretty (+adj.) / fairly (+adj.) / rather / somewhat; more or less / to a fair extent
Degree 6 much / many / (such) a lot of / very / quite (a); quite; a lot / very much / to a large extent
Degree 7 a whole lot of / a verly large amount or number of / immensely, in an incredible amount / so much…; so
Degree 8 most of / mostly
Degree 9 every / all (of)/whole; entirely/in its entirety


-ns / -sn
Non-Contiguous (i.e., Intermixed) Portion of the Whole
Degree 1 no amount of / none (of)
Degree 2 a very few / a tiny amount of / a tiny number of; only a tiny bit / a tiny bit
Degree 3 few/a little / a bit; a little / a bit
Degree 4 some, any [= some of] / some of or any of the / a portion; partially / to some extent
Degree 5 a fair number of / a fair amount of / pretty (+adj.) / fairly (+adj.) / rather / somewhat; more or less / to a fair extent
Degree 6 much / many / (such) a lot of / very / quite (a); quite /; a lot / very much / to a large extent
Degree 7 a whole lot of / a very large amount or number of / immensely, in an incredible amount / so much…; so
Degree 8 most of / mostly
Degree 9 every / all (of) / whole; entirely / in its entirety

-mt / -tm
Type of Container/Packaging/Conveyance/Holder
Degree 1 jar/pot of X [storage + containment]
Degree 2 dispensor-type container/package, e.g., tube, barrel, bottle for multiple use
Degree 3 can/tin/bottle/sealed pouch [= storage + packaging + protection/preservation]
Degree 4 carton/box/basket [= temporary containment]
Degree 5 natural or generic mass containment/packaging/holder (e.g., a loaf of bread, a lump of clay)
Degree 6 satchel, pack of [= for personal conveyance/moving]
Degree 7 pile of, load of [= in context of conveyance/moving or bulk storage]
Degree 8 X-ful of [+ Partitive], e.g., a roomful of clowns, a skyful of clouds, a treeful of leaves, a spoonful
Degree 9 embodiment/manifestation of abstract essence, e.g., a life form [= an embodiment of life]


Degree Of Sufficiency
Degree 1 none at all; not…at all
Degree 2 way too little / woefully insufficient / way too few; not...anywhere enough / totally under-[+verb]
Degree 3 not enough / insufficient / too few; not...enough / insufficiently / under-[+verb]
Degree 4 not quite enough / slightly insufficient; not...quite enough / a bit insufficiently / slightly under-[+verb]
Degree 5 enough (of) / sufficient; enough / sufficiently
Degree 6 a little too / a little too much; a little too much / slightly over- [+verb]
Degree 7 too / toomuch; too much / too many / over- [+verb]
Degree 8 way too / way too much; way too much / totally over- [+verb]
Degree 9 inundated with; to the exclusion of all else / to the point that X overwhelms or takes over


Degree or Extent
Degree 1 none (at all); to no extent at all
Degree 2 tiniest part of / a bit of; to smallest extent / hardly / barely
Degree 3 only a part of / only some of; to some extent / partially / partly / somewhat
Degree 4 less than usual / below normal; less so than usual/ to a lesser degree or extent than usual
Degree 5 the normal, expected or usual amount (of)
Degree 6 more than usual / above normal; more so than usual; to a greater degree or extent than normal
Degree 7 way more than usual / way above normal or expected; to a much greater degree or extent than normal
Degree 8 almost as much as possible / near(ly) maximum
Degree 9 total, -ful; to greatest extent / maximum / maximal; maximally / at full capacity, e.g., She bought out the store.

-rd / -dr
Dynamically Changing Degree or Extent
Degree 1 less and less / fewer and fewer / ongoing decrease in; decreasingly
Degree 2 a lot fewer / a lot less (of); a lot less
Degree 3 fewer / less (of); less
Degree 4 a little less (of) / a bit less (of); a little less / a bit less
Degree 5 a fluctuating amount or degree of; to a fluctuating degree or extent
Degree 6 a little more (of) / a bit more (of); a little more / a bit more
Degree 7 more (of); more
Degree 8 a lot more (of); a lot more
Degree 9 more and more / continuing increase in / increasingly more / ever-increasing

This suffix is used with all vector-like or gradient concepts. When used with the COMPLETIVE version, degrees 1 and 9 imply attainment of a change in state, e.g., sleepiness → sleep.

7.4.7 Modulative Suffixes

Recoil in place (spring back; snap back; fall back into place)
Back & forth; to & fro in place (e.g., pendulum, wagging tail)
Back & forth over linear vector (e.g., snake-like; zig-zag)
Cycle or circular motion in place (spin, revolve)
Cycle or circular motion over linear vector (e.g., train wheels, bike wheels)
Random pattern of modulation (unpredictable/irregular movement pattern)

These suffixes operate in conjunction with Phase (see Sec. 5.3) to describe contexts involving recoil, spring motion, oscillative, cyclic, reflective or vibrative motion, using the following degrees:

Degree 1 not enough
Degree 2 hardly at all
Degree 3 to a small degree
Degree 4 to a less than normal degree
Degree 5 to the normal / standard / usual degree
Degree 6 to a greater than normal degree
Degree 7 to a large degree
Degree 8 to a very large degree
Degree 9 too much / overly

Degree of Fluctuation/Stability
Degree 1 inherently and consistently unstable and random to a high degree
Degree 2 highly variable/random fluctuation or instability
Degree 3 moderately variable/random fluctuation or instability
Degree 4 increasing fluctuation or destabilization in pattern
Degree 5 tending toward fluctuations and periods of instability
Degree 6 decreasing fluctuation or instability in pattern = increasing stability
Degree 7 moderately stable and lacking in fluctuations
Degree 8 complete lack of fluctuation or instability; highly stable
Degree 9 inherently and consistently stable

-ft DCR Decrease
-pf ICD Increase then Decrease
-kf DCI Decrease then Increase
- IDR Random/Varying Increases and Decreases 

Used with the following degrees, the above five suffixes operate to expand Phase into showing increases or decreases (or wavering) of intensity of an action during its duration.

Degree 1 so slowly as to seem immovable
Degree 2 very slowly
Degree 3 slowly
Degree 4 somewhat slower than normal
Degree 5 normal/usual/standard speed
Degree 6 somewhat faster than normal
Degree 7 fast/quickly
Degree 8 very rapidly
Degree 9 so rapidly as to be unable to follow


Degree of Stillness/Movement
Degree 1 unmovable – integrated
Degree 2 unmovable due to mass
Degree 3 not easily moved
Degree 4 inclined to stillness
Degree 5 holding still
Degree 6 moving around slightly, stirring
Degree 7 moving around in one place
Degree 8 moving around, agitated
Degree 9 highly agitated, unable to keep still

7.4.8 Qualifying Suffixes

Degree of Size
Degree 1 too small
Degree 2 very small/ very little/ miniscule/ tiny/ itty-bitty;in a very small manner; barely/hardly
Degree 3 small/little
Degree 4 a little on the small size / undersized / petite
Degree 5 a little on the large size / oversized / jumbo
Degree 6 big/large; in a large manner
Degree 7 very big/very large; in a very large manner
Degree 8 enormous(ly) / huge(ly) / humoungous(ly) / gigantic(ally)
Degree 9 too big / too large / too huge; in too large a manner

Dynamic Change of Size
Degree 1 smallest single manifestation of / particle of
Degree 2 runaway shrinkage of / rapid disappearance or diminishment of
Degree 3 solitary / only / sole / lone / unaccompanied; alone / by -self / on his own / unaccompanied / solely
Degree 4 decreasing / de-escalating / shrinking
Degree 5 compact/concentrated; in efficient or compact way [e.g., canyon → gorge]
Degree 6 expanded/enhanced; in expanded or enhanced way [e.g., canyon → rift valley]
Degree 7 growing, increasing, escalating
Degree 8 runaway / runaway growth, increase or expansion of
Degree 9 synergistic expansion e.g., hit (+ RCP valence) → fight

Degree of Affect
Degree 1 cute/darling / in a cute or darling manner
Degree 2 too cute / schmaltzy / in a maudlin way
Degree 3 kitschy / quaint(ly)
Degree 4 dear, endearing(ly)
Degree 5 lovely / elegant
Degree 6 esteemed
Degree 7 imperious / royal / most high / most excellent / revered
Degree 8 too grand / too imperious
Degree 9 great / grand; in a great / grand / grandiose manner

Degree of Quality, Effectiveness or Adequacy
Degree 1 too poor(ly); too badly
Degree 2 very bad(ly) / very poor(ly) / very inadequate(ly) / intolerable / intolerably / terrible / terribly
Degree 3 bad / poor / inadequate; badly / poorly / inadequately / wanting / lacking
Degree 4 not-so-good / could be better; somewhat poor(ly) or bad(ly) / somewhat wanting or lacking / below average
Degree 5 not-so-bad / average; could be worse; so-so / somewhat well / OK, I guess / adequate(ly) / acceptably
Degree 6 good/effective; well/effectively/ more than adequate / above-average
Degree 7 very good / very effective(ly) / very well
Degree 8 excellent(ly) / superb(ly) / outstanding(ly)
Degree 9 astounding(ly) / amazing(ly) great or well / unbelievably excellent / absolutely superb(ly) / unsurpassable(ly)

Degree of Specialness or Uniqueness
Degree 1 vulgar, trashy, too cheap / in a vulgar or trashy manner
Degree 2 cheap, tasteless, gaudy, gauche / in a cheap, gaudy, gauche or tasteless manner
Degree 3 run of the mill / unexceptional / average / commonplace / ordinary; in a commonplace or unexceptional manner
Degree 4 somewhat ordinary / somewhat common(place)
Degree 5 somewhat special / somewhat out of the ordinary / interesting(ly) / intriguing(ly) / eye-catching / appealing(ly)
Degree 6 special; epecially
Degree 7 extraordinary / highly unusual; extraordinarily
Degree 8 (one and) only/unique; in the only way / uniquely / unparallelled
Degree 9 marvelous / wonderful / wondrous / awesome / awe-inspiring


Degree of Importance/Impact/Signficance
Degree 1 utterly unimportant, insignficant, unnecessary, irrelevant
Degree 2 hardly necessary, seemingly unimportant, essentially insignificant, essentially irrelevant
Degree 3 third-string / no remaining alternative but X
Degree 4 back-up / understudy / second-string
Degree 5 secondary
Degree 6 fairly significant, somewhat important
Degree 7 importan t/ significant / considerable
Degree 8 primary / foremost / very significant
Degree 9 Indispensable/crucial/critical


Degree of Consequentiality, Finality or Irrevocability
Degree 1 inconsequential/sham/having no effect; like it didn’t even happen/with no effect
Degree 2 relatively inconsequential / having little effect / easily reversible or undone / to little effect / minor / to minor degree
Degree 3 somewhat inconsequential/having only some effect/reparable/reversible/to some effect / somewhat minor
Degree 4 not so minor / somwhat significant degree / reversible with effort / having a somewhat significant impact or effect
Degree 5 consequential / having a fair effect / reversible only with concerted effort / to good effect
Degree 6 Overall / signifcant degree of; all in all / for the most part/to great effect / on the whole
Degree 7 virtually total/near total; nearly for good/almost completely
Degree 8 utter / complete / total; altogether / completely / for good / utterly / irrevocably for all intents and purposes
Degree 9 for all time / forever / finally

Degree of Notoriety, Acceptance, Respect, Honor
Degree 1 pariah-like / ostracized; in an alienating or self-ostracizing manner
Degree 2 infamous; infamously
Degree 3 frowned-upon / disapproved ; in a manner guaranteed to arouse disapproval
Degree 4 tolerated; in a tolerated manner
Degree 5 common / customary / expected / accepted; in an common, customary, expected, or accepted manner
Degree 6 notorious(ly)
Degree 7 well-known / well-liked / well thought of; in a totally appropriate way / in a manner befitting a gentleman or lady
Degree 8 respected / honored; respectfully / honorably
Degree 9 highly praised / highly honored / highly esteemed / highly respected / most excellent / most honorable


Degree of Subjective Effect or Behavioral Appropriateness
Degree 1 grotesque, gross, nauseating, sickening
Degree 2 repugnant, revolting, repulsive
Degree 3 despicable, deplorable, detestable
Degree 4 lurid, spectacle-inducing
Degree 5 offensive, ill-mannered, in poor taste
Degree 6 lewd
Degree 7 spectacular, showy, larger-than-life
Degree 8 well-mannered, polite
Degree 9 classy, dignified, in good taste


Degree of Contextual Appropriateness
Degree 1 contemptable(-ly) / utterly inappropriate(ly)
Degree 2 scandalous(ly) / trashy(-ly) / inappropriate(ly)
Degree 3 ill-mannered / boorish(ly) / improper(ly) / tasteless(ly)
Degree 4 eyebrow-raising / questionable(-ly)
Degree 5 somewhat improper(ly) / unorthodox(ically)
Degree 6 acceptable(-ly) / adequate(ly)
Degree 7 appropriate(ly) / proper(ly) / correct(ly)
Degree 8 utterly appropriate(ly), very proper(ly); strictly correct(ly)
Degree 9 stuffy / orthodox / old-fashioned; utterly predictable(ly)


Position on Social, Occupational, or (Para-) Military Hierarchy
Degree 1 bottom rung / the “dregs”
Degree 2 rank & file
Degree 3 lower echeleon
Degree 4 lower-mid
Degree 5 mid-level
Degree 6 upper mid
Degree 7 upper echeleon
Degree 8 senior
Degree 9 head / chief / top / executive

This suffix, for example, would be used to distinguish the names of the various ranks within a military or paramilitary organization such as private, corporal, sergeant, lieutenant, etc. all the way up to general and supreme commander.


Degree of Formality
Degree 1 too casual / overly casual
Degree 2 very casual
Degree 3 casual
Degree 4 somewhat casual
Degree 5 neither casual nor formal
Degree 6 somewhat formal
Degree 7 formal
Degree 8 very formal
Degree 9 too formal / overly formal

Degree of Typicalness
Degree 1 unique / never-before-seen / one of a kind / shocking
Degree 2 original / avante-garde; surprising(ly) / innovative(ly)
Degree 3 atypical(ly) / unusual(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat atypical(ly) or unusual(ly)
Degree 5 garden variety / run-of-the-mill / typical(ly)
Degree 6 expected / common; in a commonplace manner
Degree 7 disappointingly typical; very typically
Degree 8 unoriginal / mundane; in an uninspired way
Degree 9 stereotyped / stereotypical(ly)

Degree of Prototypicalness
Degree 1 very dissimilar to prototype, very atypical member, closer to members of different set
Degree 2 dissimilar to prototype, atypical member
Degree 3 having noticeable dissimilarities from prototype
Degree 4 somewhat dissimilar to prototype
Degree 5 having unknown degree of closeness or similarity to prototype
Degree 6 adequately similar to prototype
Degree 7 as close to prototype as is typically found
Degree 8 as close to prototype as possible
Degree 9 prototype/archetype/model


-mž / -žm
Degree of Intelligence Manifested
Degree 1 dumb / stupid / assinine; idiotic(ally) / moronic(ally)
Degree 2 foolhearty / foolish(ly)
Degree 3 ill-conceived(ly) / (in a) poorly thought out (way)
Degree 4 naïve(ly) / simplistic(ally)
Degree 5 well-intentioned but ill-conceived / reckless(ly); risky
Degree 6 well-reasoned / intelligent(ly)
Degree 7 innovative(ly) / daring [based on analysis and judgement]
Degree 8 ingenious / brilliant
Degree 9 wise(ly); [V2 = ‘philosophical(ly)]

Degree of Age or Modernity
Degree 1 prehistoric / proto-
Degree 2 ancient
Degree 3 old (first) / archaic
Degree 4 classic(al)
Degree 5 old-fashioned; in the old-fashioned way
Degree 6 “yesteryear”; in the era just passed; in the previous zeitgeist
Degree 7 modern, contemporary, present-day
Degree 8 innovative / trailblazing; innovatively, trailblazingly, cutting-edge
Degree 9 avant-garde

7.4.9 Modifying Suffixes

Negation/affirmation of all morphological components
Negation/affirmation of stem + affixes but not adjunct information
Negation/affirmation of all morphological components except Modality
Negation/affirmation of all but aspectual or Modality information

The above four suffixes are used to affirm or negate a formative. Because much of the information associated with an Ithkuil formative is carried in adjuncts, the above suffixes are used to indicate exactly which morpho-semantic information is being affirmed or negated. For example, in English the sentences I don’t want to stop eating, I want to not stop eating, and I want to stop not eating mean different things. The above four suffixes are used with the following degrees.

Degree 1 on the contrary…most cerainly does NOT/is NOT [absolute negation]; no X whatsoever; absolutely not = emphatic negation/denial
Degree 2 on the contrary…does NOT or is NOT [absolute negation contrary to expectation]
Degree 3 on the contrary…does NOT or is NOT [relative negation contrary to expectation]
Degree 4 no; not [absolute negation] = e.g., I will not win the race (because I’m not in the race)
Degree 5 no; not [relative negation] = e.g., I will not win the race (although I am in the race)
Degree 6 almost / near(ly)
Degree 7 hardly / barely
Degree 8 …does (too) / is (too) [= simple affirmation contrary to expectation]
Degree 9 …is indeed / does indeed / most certainly is / most certainly does [emphatic affirmation]


Polarity / Logical valence values
Degree 1 false/negative [bivalent polarity or logic]
Degree 2 false/negative [trivalent polarity or logic]
Degree 3 superpositional – neither true/positive nor false/negative
Degree 4 unknown polarity or logical state/value [trivalent polarity or logic]
Degree 5 neutral [trivalent polarity or logic]
Degree 6 unknown polarity or logical state/value [bivalent polarity or logic]
Degree 7 superpositional – both true/positive and false/negative
Degree 8 true/positive [trivalent polarity or logic]
Degree 9 true/positive [bivalent polarity or logic]

Degree of Development
Degree 1 reversal or undoing of process = ‘un-’ / ‘de-’ / ‘dis-’
Degree 2 reversal/undoing of process in large chunks = ‘un-’ / ‘de-’ / ‘dis-’
Degree 3 reversal little by little / a little at a time = entropic change in / slowly falling apart / unravelling
Degree 4 moribund / stagnant; in a moribund or stagnant manner
Degree 5 well-maintained / well-kept / “healthy”; keep X going / maintain X-ing
Degree 6 one by one / one at a time / one after another
Degree 7 little by little / a little at a time / bit by bit / a piece at a time
Degree 8 by leaps and bounds / in large amounts at a time
Degree 9 complete achievement now irreversible / set in stone

Degree of Genuineness or Veracity
Degree 1 real / actual / true / genuine; truly, genuinely, really, actually, indeed [affirmation contrary to suggestion otherwise]
Degree 2 real / actual / true / genuine; truly, genuinely, really, actually, indeed
Degree 3 apparent / seeming / looks like a; apparently / appears to have / seems to have
Degree 4 suspicious-looking / ”fishy” seeming; presumably /allegedly / gives the appearance of having
Degree 5 ersatz / facsimile; as an equivalent to
Degree 6 substitute / replacement / proxy / fill-in / placeholder; as a substitue or proxy for
Degree 7 fake / pretend / mock; pretend to, fake X-ing
Degree 8 imaginary / unreal / made-up ; imagine X-ing, not really X-ing
Degree 9 imaginary / unreal / made-up ; imagine X-ing, not really X-ing [contrary to suggestion otherwise]


-rk / -kr
Degree of Success versus Failure
Degree 1 total failure in; completely fail to
Degree 2 failed, would-be; unsuccessfully, fail to
Degree 3 = INEFFECTUAL or INCOMPLETIVE version (see Sec. 5.8)
Degree 4 certain to be a failed / certain to fail in
Degree 5 marginally successful(ly) / barely, hardly [in terms of adequacy or success]
Degree 6 certain to be a successful ; certain to succeed in
Degree 7 = POSITIVE or EFFECTIVE version (see Sec. 5.8)
Degree 8 successful(-ly completed); successfully
Degree 9 overwhelmingly successful(ly)

Degree of Potential or Capability
Degree 1 utterly incapable / completely lacking in all necessary abilities or capacities
Degree 2 underqualified; almost totally lacking in necessary abilities or capacities
Degree 3 lacking in certain key capabilities; mostly inadequate to task
Degree 4 possible but less than likely due to underdeveloped capabilities
Degree 5 unknown if capable or not
Degree 6 somewhat capable / has possible potential to perform
Degree 7 sufficiently capable / adequate potential to perform
Degree 8 fully capable; well within abilities
Degree 9 overly qualified; more capable than necessary or required


Degree of Probability or Likelihood
Degree 1 impossible / hopeless / lost cause
Degree 2 almost no chance of / virtually impossible
Degree 3 highly unlikely
Degree 4 unlikely / improbable(ly)
Degree 5 possible; possibly
Degree 6 hopeful(ly)
Degree 7 probable; probably
Degree 8 highly probable / highly likely / certain to be a. . . certain to
Degree 9 forgone conclusion that / in the can / done deal

7.4.10 Adverbial Suffixes

-nţ / -ţn
Degree of Physical Strength Possible or Used
Degree 1 barely / hardly / very weak(ly)
Degree 2 weak(ly) / to small degree
Degree 3 soft(ly) / guarded(ly)
Degree 4 measured(ly)
Degree 5 somewhat strong(ly) / somewhat powerful(ly)
Degree 6 adequately strong; with adequate strength
Degree 7 strong(ly) / powerful(ly)
Degree 8 very strong(ly) / very powerful(ly)
Degree 9 with maximum power

Degree of Physical Force Exerted
Degree 1 too light(ly) / too soft(ly) / too delicate(ly)
Degree 2 light as a feather/ baby soft; extremely delicately or lightly or softly
Degree 3 light/soft/hardly a; softly / lightly / delicately / gingerly
Degree 4 somewhat on the light or soft side; somewhat softly / lightly / delicately / gingerly
Degree 5 neither soft(ly) nor forceful(ly); with the right touch
Degree 6 somewhat violent(ly) / somewhat forceful(ly)
Degree 7 violent/forceful / rough; violently / with force / roughly
Degree 8 very violent(ly) / very forceful(ly) / very rough(ly)
Degree 9 too violent(ly) / too forceful(ly) / too rough(ly)

Degree of Speed (i.e., Intensity of Movement or Change)
Degree 1 too slow(ly)
Degree 2 very slow(ly)
Degree 3 slow(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat slow(ly)
Degree 5 at just the right speed or intensity
Degree 6 somewhat fast / somewhat quick(ly) / somewhat rapid(ly)
Degree 7 fast / quick(ly) / rapid(ly); at fast pace
Degree 8 very fast / very quick(ly) / very rapid(ly); at fast pace
Degree 9 too fast / too quick(ly) / too rapid(ly); at fast pace

Degree of Speed (i.e., Velocity = Distance Over Time)
Degree 1 too slow(ly)
Degree 2 very slow(ly)
Degree 3 slow(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat slow(ly)
Degree 5 at just the right speed
Degree 6 somewhat fast / somewhat quick(ly) / somewhat rapid(ly)
Degree 7 fast / quick(ly) / rapid(ly); at fast pace
Degree 8 very fast / very quick(ly) / very rapid(ly)/; at fast pace
Degree 9 too fast / too quick(ly) / too rapid(ly); at fast pace


-lt / -tl
Degree of Forthrightness, Confidence or Humility
Degree 1

too meek(ly) / too submissive(ly) / too obedient(ly) / too docile(ly)

Degree 2 very meek(ly) / very submissive(ly) / very obedient(ly) / very docile(ly)
Degree 3 meek(ly) / submissive(ly) / obedient(ly) / docile(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat meek(ly) / somewhat submissive(ly) / somewhat obedient(ly) / somewhat docile(ly)
Degree 5 properly humble / properly forthright ; with proper degree of humility or forthrightness
Degree 6 somewhat confident(ly) / somewhat strong(ly) / somewhat definite(ly) / somewhat definitive(ly) or authoritative(ly)
Degree 7 confident(ly) /strong(ly) / definite(ly)/ definitive(ly) / authoritative(ly)
Degree 8 very confident(ly) / very strong(ly) / very definite(ly) / very definitive(ly) / very authoritative(ly)
Degree 9 over-confident(ly) / too strong(ly) / too definite(ly) / too definitive(ly) / too authoritative(ly)

Degree of Efficiency or Efficacy
Degree 1 destructively wasteful / disastrous(ly) / accomplishing the opposite of intention / making things worse
Degree 2 very wasteful / accomplishing nothing / making a mess of it
Degree 3 wasteful / accomplishing little
Degree 4 somewhat wasteful / accomplishing somewhat less than expected
Degree 5 adequate(ly) [in terms of efficiency]
Degree 6 rather efficient(ly) / fairly efficient(ly) / accomplishing somewhat more than expected
Degree 7 efficient(ly) / with little or no waste(d effort)
Degree 8 extremely efficient(ly) / with no waste(d effort) whatsoever
Degree 9 a synergy of… / sum beyond total of parts / a synergistic composite of ; to X synergistically

Degree of Correctness versus Error
Degree 1 totally wrong / totally mis- or mal-; totally in error / erroneous(ly) / incorrect(ly)
Degree 2 wrong/incorrect(ly) / mis- / mal- ; in error / erroneous(ly) / incorrect(ly)
Degree 3 fairly wrong / fairly incorrect(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat wrong / more wrong than right
Degree 5 so-so; barely adequate(ly) / barely correct(ly)
Degree 6 somewhat right / more right than wrong
Degree 7 fairly right / fairly correct(ly)
Degree 8 right / correctly
Degree 9 totally right / totally correct(ly) / totally well-X’d

Degree of Maturation
Degree 1 undeveloped / immature(ly) / seed / embryo
Degree 2 under-developed / newborn [stage, not age] / seedling / baby
Degree 3 growing / budding / youthful / young
Degree 4 maturing / developing / getting stronger or bigger or more complex or sophisticated
Degree 5 fully developed / fully mature(d) / robust / ripe
Degree 6 overly developed / overripe / showing signs of wear and tear / stressed / under stress / fatigued
Degree 7 declining/fading; trail off/fade / getting softer or weaker / faded / decrepit / has-been / past one’s prime
Degree 8 disintegrating / utterly deteriorated / beyond repair or rehabilitation / irreparable / dying
Degree 9 dead / defunct / disintegrated


Degree of Subtlety
Degree 1 too subtle(ly)
Degree 2 very subtle(ly)
Degree 3 subtle(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat subtle(ly)
Degree 5 somewhat unsubtle(ly)
Degree 6 unsubtle(ly) / lumbering(ly) rather obvious/ fairly blatant / belabored ; belabor / lumber along X-ing
Degree 7 obvious(ly) / blatant(ly) / exaggerated(ly)
Degree 8 very obvious(ly) / very blatant(ly)
Degree 9 over-the-top / in-your-face / to obvious(ly) / too blatant(ly)


Degree of Directness
Degree 1 too indirect(ly)
Degree 2 very indirect(ly)
Degree 3 indirect(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat indirect(ly)
Degree 5 somewhat direct(ly)
Degree 6 fairly direct(ly) / rather direct(ly)
Degree 7 direct(ly) / straightforward
Degree 8 very direct(ly) / very straightforward
Degree 9 too direct(ly) / painfully straightforward

-mš / -šm
Degree of Suddenness
Degree 1 too slow(ly) in happening, too long in X-ing, overdue, delayed
Degree 2 very slow(ly) in happening or developing
Degree 3 slow(ly) ; long in developing or happening
Degree 4 somewhat slow(ly) ; somewhat long in developing or happening
Degree 5 taking just the right amount of time to develop or occur
Degree 6 somewhat immediate / somewhat sudden; somewhat imediately / somewhat suddenly
Degree 7 immediate / sudden; imediately / suddenly
Degree 8 very immediate / very sudden; very imediately / very suddenly
Degree 9 too immediate / too sudden; too imediately / too suddenly


Degree of Care, Precision or Scrutiny
Degree 1 utterly sloppy(ily) / totally careless(ly)
Degree 2 very sloppy(ily) / very careless(ly)
Degree 3 sloppy(ily) / careless(ly) / with poor attention to detail
Degree 4 somewhat sloppy(ily) / somewhat careless(ly)
Degree 5 less than careful(ly) / with only some degree of care
Degree 6 somewhat careful(ly) / fairly precise(ly)
Degree 7 precise(ly) / careful(ly) / detailed
Degree 8 extremely precise(ly) / with great care or precision or scrutiny / meticulous(ly)
Degree 9 overly precise(ly) / ‘nit-picky’ / with too much scrutiny / overly meticulous(ly)


Degree of Concern or Consideration
Degree 1 …the hell…! / what the hell . . . / . . . who cares
Degree 2 self-centered(ly) / without thought or concern for others
Degree 3 at the very least / at the least level of concern required
Degree 4 without concern / indifferent(ly) / without consideration / unconcerned(ly) / thoughtless(ly)
Degree 5 reluctant(ly)
Degree 6 at best / with the most concern one can muster
Degree 7 concerned(ly) / with concern / with consideration for others
Degree 8 very concerned(ly) / highly concerned(ly) / with great concern or consideration for others
Degree 9 overly concerned(ly) / worrisome(ly) / with too much concern or consideration for others / altruistically

-lk / -kl
Degree of Sophistication
Degree 1 too crude(ly) / too primitive(ly)
Degree 2 very crude(ly) / very primitive(ly)
Degree 3 crude(ly) / primitive(ly)
Degree 4 somewhat crude(ly) / somewhat primitive(ly)
Degree 5 with expected/normal degree or level of sophistication
Degree 6 somewhat sophisticated or refined
Degree 7 sophisticated or refined
Degree 8 very sophisticated or refined
Degree 9 too sophisticated or refined

Degree of Covertness versus Overtness
Degree 1 too secretive(ly) / overly covert(ly)
Degree 2 very secretive(ly) / highly covert(ly) / hidden / well behind the scenes
Degree 3 secretive(ly) / covert(ly) / behind the scenes / between the lines / under the table / “back-room”
Degree 4 somewhat secretive(ly) / somewhat covert(ly)
Degree 5 not too secretive(ly) / not so open(ly)
Degree 6 somewhat open(ly) / somewhat “up front”
Degree 7 open(ly) / overt(ly) / “up front” / out in the open / honest / forthcoming(ly)
Degree 8 very open(ly) / very overt(ly) / very “up front” / flaunting(ly) / brutally honest
Degree 9 too open(ly) / too overt(ly) / overly flaunting(ly) / vulgar(ly)


-rt / -tr
Degree of Effort
Degree 1 too difficult / overly difficult
Degree 2 very difficult / so difficult
Degree 3 strained / difficult; strain to / with difficulty / struggle to / to work at X-ing / to X hard
Degree 4 somewhat difficult / not that easy
Degree 5 neither easy nor difficult
Degree 6 somewhat easy; not so difficult
Degree 7 easy / certain / unhindered / with ease / without resistance / effortlessly
Degree 8 very easy / so easy
Degree 9 too easy / overly easy

Degree of Design or Purposefulness
Degree 1 purposeless(ly) /random(ly) / utterly unorganized / chaotic(ally)
Degree 2 haphazard(ly) / without plan or guidance/ disorganized(ly) / poorly planned
Degree 3 fairly haphazard(ly) / not well-planned / not well-organized
Degree 4 somewhat haphazard(ly) / somewhat disorganized
Degree 5 slightly disorganized / less than well-planned
Degree 6 somewhat organized / somewhat well-planned
Degree 7 organized(ly) / purposeful(ly) / well-planned
Degree 8 very organized / very structured
Degree 9 too organized / overly structured / “anal(ly)”


Degree of Decisiveness, Commitment or Emphasis
Degree 1 indecisive / meandering; indecisively / first one way then another
Degree 2 wishy washy / flaky
Degree 3 some sort of / some kind of / sort of (like) / ”kind of”; in a way / halfway / does and doesn’t
Degree 4 apparent(ly); seeming(ly)
Degree 5 mere(ly) / only (a); merely / only
Degree 6 deliberate / decisive; deliberately / decisively / purposefully
Degree 7 a real / certainly a ; really / certainly [emphasis, not genuineness or veracity]
Degree 8 the (one); in the only way that counts
Degree 9 what (a) ...!; how . . .! ; Boy! Did (does) X ever …


Degree of Contrariness to Expectation(s) or Shift in Subject
Degree 1 but X would… / if things were otherwise X WOULD… / on the contrary, X WOULD [affirmation of hypothetical contrary to statement/suggestion otherwise
Degree 2 but / X DOES/IS . . . / on the contrary … [affirmation of fact contrary to suggestion or statement otherwise]
Degree 3 like it or not…/ well, as much as we didn’t want to think it would happen...
Degree 4 against expectation or belief ‘… after all’ ‘well, what do you know…X!’
Degree 5 a genuine / real / true ; really do, [contrary to expectation]
Degree 6 as a matter of fact
Degree 7 ‘at least/at any rate’
Degree 8 ‘by the way/ just to mention’
Degree 9 not to change the subject but…/ sorry to change the subject, but…/ I don’t mean to change the subject, but…


Degree of Physical Control
Degree 1 uncontrolled/helpless(ly) ; without control/ out of control
Degree 2 almost completely out of control / almost totally helpless
Degree 3 losing control / losing the ability to…
Degree 4 insufficiently trained in...
Degree 5 amateur(ishly) / superficially able to…
Degree 6 learn(ing) to… / begin(ning) to be able to…
Degree 7 w/ growing proficiency or expertise (in)
Degree 8 proficient(ly)
Degree 9 in full control / expert(ly)

7.4.11 Modality Suffixes

Many of these correspond to the modality suffixes used in valence/modality adjuncts (see Chapter 6). The nine degrees associated with each suffix allow a speaker control over the extent to which the modality category should apply to the utterance. These suffix forms function, then, as an alternative to adjunct forms for greater nuance in the applicability of the modality category and to apply them to nouns. The nine degrees of each suffix are as follows:

Degree 1 not at all
Degree 2 to too little a degree; to an insufficient degree
Degree 3 hardly at all
Degree 4 to a small degree
Degree 5 to a fair degree/somewhat
Degree 6 fairly much/more so than not
Degree 7 very much so / decidedly so / to a great degree
Degree 8 too much so / to too great a degree
Degree 9 to the exclusion of all else / without consideration for anything else

The specific modality suffixes are as follows:

-řb MD01 resigned to
-řd MD02 devoted; committed to / devoted to
-řč MD03 desired / sought-after; want to
-řţ MD04 attempted, attempt at a …; try to, attempt to
-řç MD05 capable, able; can / able to / capable of
-řc MD06 knowledgeable; can = know how to / familiar with
-řf MD07 mandatory; must / have to
-řxh MD08 required; should / be to
-řk MD09 expected; be supposed to
-nd MD10 intended; mean to / intend to / shall
-řg MD11 chosen, selected; choose to / elect to
-řq MD12 …on impulse; feel like X-ing
-řż MD13 promised; promise to
-řj MD14 well-liked; like (to)
-řtļ MD15 feared; fear (to)
-řs MD16 willing; willing to
-řš MD17 prepared / ready; prepared to/ready to
-řv MD18 necessary / needed; need to
-řň MD19 Daring; dare to
-řdh MD20 decided-upon; decide to
-řz MD21 offered/offer of; offer to
-řž MD22 aided / assisted; help to / aid in X-ing
-řn MD23 not unexpected; be prone to / be apt to / tend to
-rm MD24 agreed-upon; agree to
-řl MD25 responsible for/in charge of
-řp MD26 remember to
-md MD27 feel a need to / feel one should / feel one must / feel driven to
-qf MD28 to guess or think [that]…
-tf MD29 available; available to/for
-mv MD30 potential; can = have potential to
-řt MD31 permitted; can = permitted to
-ňg MD32 hoped-for; hope/wish to
-mf MD33 X by inclination; be inclined to

7.4.12 Agential/Participant Suffixes

Degree of Agency
Degree 1 [AGENT] = one who forces/causes
Degree 2 [ENABLER] = one who enables to happen
Degree 3 [INFLUENCE] = one who persuades/influences
Degree 4 ENABLER BY PERMISSION] = one who permits/allows/lets happen
Degree 5 [PATIENT] = one who does/is made to do
Degree 6 [EXPERIENCER] = one who undergoes/experiences
Degree 7 [INSTRUMENT] = instrument which causes
Degree 8 [STIMULUS] = one whose status is as stimulus of affective experience
Degree 9 [SOURCE] = that which gives rise to, provides underlying reason for, source of

This suffix and the following identify a formative as filling a specific semantic role corresponding in many cases to the semantic roles discussed in Sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2. In several instances, these suffixes would translate the English “agentive” suffixes -er, or -or.


Degree 1 that which contains or functions as the enclosure / container / house / shelter of or for
Degree 2 that which results from
Degree 3 [RECIPIENT] = one who receives / has / "-ee"
Degree 4 one who is / acts as / functions as
Degree 5 one who is characterized by / described by...
Degree 6 one who is similar to/functions or acts similarly to
Degree 7 one whose responsibility is / who is responsible for / runs the business of (operationally speaking)
Degree 8 one who constructs / makes / creates
Degree 9 one who manages / oversees / supervises / coordinates / runs the business of (managerially speaking)


Utilitative or Enabling Means
Degree 1

tool/device/apparatus specifically designed for X-ing

Degree 2 medium by/through which one X’s
Degree 3 conduit-like tool/apparatus for X-ing
Degree 4 natural/standard body part for X-ing
Degree 5 object employed circumstantially as implement for X-ing
Degree 6 covering/protective element employed to allow/permit X-ing
Degree 7 enabling element/device/apparatus to allow/foster X-ing
Degree 8 environment/situaton/circumstances/setting which allows/fosters X-ing
Degree 9 FORCE which causes/permits X-ing

Degree of Consent
Degree 1 deliberately without consent of knowledge
Degree 2 without consent or knowledge as a precaution or “for their own good”
Degree 3 without consent or knowledge due to circumstances
Degree 4 with their knowledge but w/o consent; against their will
Degree 5 consent obtained under pressure, threat, coercion
Degree 6 w/ reluctant consent
Degree 7 willingly; with full consent
Degree 8 with enthusiastic approval and support
Degree 9 at their request


Type of Mechanical Instrumentality = ‘by means of’
Degree 1 the body’s natural method of doing so (e.g., on foot, by hand, etc.)
Degree 2 a manually manipulated generic tool or implement
Degree 3 a specialized tool for that specific purpose or activity
Degree 4 a machine or via mechanical means or process
Degree 5 a virtual, electronic means or via engineering
Degree 6 mental power, force of will, concentration
Degree 7 a redirection or collation of energy specially applied
Degree 8 a collective pooling of manual labor resources
Degree 9 a collective pooling of electronic/mechanical/engineering resources


-rx / -xr
Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’
Degree 1

a hand

Degree 2 an arm
Degree 3 a foot
Degree 4 a leg
Degree 5 one’s eyes
Degree 6 both legs
Degree 7 both feet
Degree 8 both arms
Degree 9 both hands


Additional Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’
Degree 1

a finger

Degree 2 a thumb
Degree 3 a knee
Degree 4 one’s head
Degree 5 one’s teeth
Degree 6 one’s lips
Degree 7 one’s tongue
Degree 8 one’s elbow
Degree 9 one’s fingers


-ld / -dl
Type of Social Instrumentality = ‘by means of’
Degree 1 via lackeys, grunt labor, go-fors or henchmen
Degree 2 by coercion, threat, blackmail
Degree 3 “fronts”, or disguised go-betweens
Degree 4 indirectly through actions of others (unbeknownst to them)
Degree 5 indirectly through actions of others (with their knowledge)
Degree 6 by leveraging existing resources / personnel (deploying existing methods in a new application)
Degree 7 via a proxy or proxies
Degree 8 hired help or staff
Degree 9 by delegation of task to experts


Degree 1 entity/thing/phenomenon that hails from X
Degree 2 entity/thing/phenomenon associated with X
Degree 3 entity/thing/phenomenon that utilizes X
Degree 4 person that hails from X
Degree 5 person associated with X
Degree 6 person that utilizes X
Degree 7 idea/practice/custom that hails from X
Degree 8 idea/practice/custom associated with X
Degree 9 idea/practice/custom that utilizes X


Degree 1 by being granted a personal privilege / via the generosity or largess of another or others
Degree 2 by inalienable human right / by natural right
Degree 3 by right of a legal claim / by right of statute or law
Degree 4 by right of custom or social convention / by right of general agreement or common knowledge
Degree 5 by granting of a personal favor or claim on a favor owed
Degree 6 by making of a threat or via a quid-pro-quo agreement
Degree 7 by one's own formal authority, rank, or formal position
Degree 8 by authority of one's social position, class, or position in informal or subjective hierarchy
Degree 9 as authorized by a governing entity or formal collective authority


Reason for an Emotional State or Motivation for an Action
Degree 1 for evil or perverse reasons
Degree 2 for foolish or naïve reason
Degree 3 due to deception by another
Degree 4 due to faulty information provided by another [no deception intended]
Degree 5 due to or based on faulty perception or misinterpretation of information or evidence
Degree 6 despite negative circumstances or reasons not to
Degree 7 for no reason
Degree 8 for appropriate reasons / for good reason
Degree 9 for virtuous, healthy reasons

Additional Motivation for an Action or State
Degree 1 in anger
Degree 2 in repugnance/revulsion
Degree 3 in irritation
Degree 4 in defense/for protection
Degree 5 in fear
Degree 6 out of curiosity/to see what happens
Degree 7 to provoke/elicit reaction
Degree 8 to entice
Degree 9 to show appreciation

Expectation of Outcome
Degree 1 shockingly unexpected; without precedent or rumour
Degree 2 surprise X / unexpected X; completely by surprise/ completely unexpected(ly)
Degree 3 manage to X despite inadequacy of preparation or effort
Degree 4 manage to X despite misguided or misdirected preparation or effort
Degree 5 managed to X despite hindrance(s) or obstacles; hard-won
Degree 6 manage to X due to hindrances or obstacles being overestimated; easier than thought to be
Degree 7 manage to X due to excellent preparation / planning / execution
Degree 8 completely as expected / totally as anticipated / as predicted
Degree 9 pat; outcome pre-ordained or predetermined

Degree of Deliberateness/Agency
Degree 1 accidental(ly) / inadvertent(ly) and unaware of consequences
Degree 2 unintended / unintentional(ly) / without meaning to and unaware of consequences
Degree 3 accidental(ly) / inadvertent(ly) but now aware of consequences
Degree 4 unintended / unintentional(ly) / without meaning to but now aware of consequences
Degree 5 unforseeable / unpredictable; unforeseeably / unpredictably
Degree 6 without realizing or considering potential consequences
Degree 7 thinking one can get away without reaping consequences / furtive(ly)
Degree 8 realizing potential risks or consequences / cognizant of potential risks or consequences
Degree 9 intentional(ly) / deliberate(ly) / on purpose / by choice; choose to


-mz / -zm
Degree of Self-Conscious Deliberation or Motivation
Degree 1 affected, ostentatious; affectedly/ostentatiously
Degree 2 self-conscious(ly)
Degree 3 guilty / guiltily
Degree 4 half-hearted(ly)
Degree 5 against better judgement / can’t help but / can’t help it
Degree 6 ingrained, by upbringing
Degree 7 learned / habitual; by habit / trained to
Degree 8 natural(ly) / un-self-conscious(ly)
Degree 9 autonomic / unaware, automatic

-ls / -sl
Degree of Enablement
Degree 1 by inadvertent gesture/word/sign taken as order or permission
Degree 2 by granting of permission
Degree 3 by cajoling or persuasion
Degree 4 by direct request or imploring
Degree 5 by direct order based on one’s real or perceived authority
Degree 6 by inadvertent removal of hindrance
Degree 7 by inadvertent action that initiates a chain of events
Degree 8 by deliberate removal of hindrance
Degree 9 by deliberate action that initiates a chain of events

-ms / -sm
Degree of Agency, Intent or Effectiveness
Degree 1 with the anticipated max. resulting effect possible
Degree 2 with the anticipated resulting effect to a high degree
Degree 3 with the anticipated resulting effect to a moderate degree
Degree 4 with the anticipated resulting effect but only to a marginal, superficial or baredly noticable degree
Degree 5 with no noticeable effect or resulting change
Degree 6 with only marginal, superficial, or barely noticeable effect or resulting change unanticipated
Degree 7 with moderate effect or resulting change — unanticipated
Degree 8 with the resulting effect to a high degree — unanticipated
Degree 9 with the max. resulting effect possible — unanticipated

-rz / -zr
Degree of Impact on Patient/Target or Enablement of Outcome
Degree 1 target can do nothing - utterly inevitable
Degree 2 target chooses to do nothing - resigned to fate
Degree 3 target tries to prevent/avoid but fails
Degree 4 target tries to prevent/avoid and does so partially or mitigates impact somewhat
Degree 5 target tries to prevent/avoid and succeeds
Degree 6 target helps/enables outcome inadvertently
Degree 7 target helps/enables outcome against own interest (i.e., without thinking)
Degree 8 target helps/enables outcome intentionally despite negative consequences
Degree 9 target helps/enables outcome intentionally for own benefit

7.4.13 Miscellaneous Suffixes

Topic, Frame and Focus
Degree 1 [sentence topic]
Degree 2 [end of frame]
Degree 3 [head of relative clause]
Degree 4 [sentence topic + head of relative clause]
Degree 5 [end of frame + head of relative clause]
Degree 6 [sentence topic + end of frame]
Degree 7 [sentence focus + end of frame + head of rel. clause]
Degree 8 [sentence focus]
Degree 9 [sentence focus + end of frame]

The various functions of the above suffix are explained in Sec. 5.4 on Frames, and Sec. 9.1 on Topic and Focus.


-rm / -mr
Switch Reference & Obviative Specification (For an explanation and illustration of this suffix, see Sec. 8.1.4 and Sec.
Degree 1 nearest preceding referent
Degree 2 2nd to nearest preceding referent
Degree 3 3rd party not previously mentioned
Degree 4 referring to sentence focus
Degree 5 first referent mentioned
Degree 6 referring to sentence topic
Degree 7 3rd party non-transrelative referent
Degree 8 2nd order transrelative referent
Degree 9 higher order transrelative referent

Place, State, Setting Where…
Degree 1 place where one learns to
Degree 2 place where one does, performs, carries out X
Degree 3 place where one obtains
Degree 4 place where one stores or inventories
Degree 5 place where one keeps or shelters
Degree 6 place where one sees or views
Degree 7 natural habitat or environment of
Degree 8 place where one deals with/ treats/ confronts
Degree 9 place where one feels affected by

Degree 1 yet, still
Degree 2 ‘even’ as in “I don’t even like them” = in the least bit, to the slightest extent
Degree 3 Contemplative: upon reflection/ in hindsight
Degree 4 upon deep introspection / following careful consideration or meditation on the matter
Degree 5 on first blush / at first / upon initial impression / [my] first thought is/was…
Degree 6 natural(ly) / obvious(ly) / clear(ly) [in terms of naturalness, not blatancy]
Degree 7 Experiential: ever
Degree 8 Regressive: return to previous state
Degree 9 Protractive: over a long period of time / long-delayed


Alternative Temporal Aspects
Degree 1 Inceptive: begin to / start to
Degree 2 Resumptive: begin again / start again / resume
Degree 3 Continuative: keep on / still / continue / stay / yet
Degree 4 Incessative: to X away / not stop
Degree 5 tire of X-ing / get tired of X-ing / become weary of X-ing
Degree 6 Cessative: stop / discontinue / cease
Degree 7 Pausal: take a break from [stop with intention to re-sume]
Degree 8 Recessative: stop again
Degree 9 Terminative: finish / complete

-rs / -sr
Part/Whole Functional Metaphors
Degree 1 engine / motor / heart / pump / core / driver mechanism
Degree 2 brain / computer / chip / instruction set
Degree 3 input / feeder / access point
Degree 4 exit point / anus / exhaust / tailpipe / smokestack / vent
Degree 5 wing/ arm / branch / extensor / manipulator
Degree 6 support / leg / stand / base
Degree 7 skeleton / frame
Degree 8 wiring / conduits / plumbing
Degree 9 sensor / eye / ear / antennae


Part/Whole Gestalt Componential Metaphors
Degree 1 “base”portion (e.g., upper arm)
Degree 2 “extension” portion (e.g., forearm) or “flange”
Degree 3 “trunk” or central bulk portion
Degree 4 middle or divisional segment or joint
Degree 5 top/upper component relative to gravity or natural vector of movement
Degree 6 bottom/lower component relative to gravity or natural vector of movement
Degree 7 side/flank/ lateral component
Degree 8 “head” extension or main interface area
Degree 9 extension/”arm”

Metonymic Categories
Degree 1 part for whole
Degree 2 producer for product
Degree 3 object used or owned for user/owner
Degree 4 controller for controlled
Degree 5 institution for people responsible
Degree 6 place for inhabitants/occupants
Degree 7 place for event
Degree 8 place for institution
Degree 9 attribute or characteristic for owner

Metonymy is the reference to an entity via one of its attributes, associations or activities, as in The ham-and-cheese wants fries with his order or The White House has its nose in our business.

Stem-Specific Derivatives
Degree 1 derivative 1
Degree 2 derivative 2
Degree 3 derivative 3
Degree 4 derivative 4
Degree 5 derivative 5
Degree 6 derivative 6
Degree 7 derivative 7
Degree 8 derivative 8
Degree 9 derivative 9

This suffix is used to distinguish particular instantiations of a more generic entity; their meaning is semantically specific to the particular stem.

Subset of Configurative Set
Degree 1 single specific member (random, i.e., any given member)
Degree 2 natural first level subset, e.g., a cell among a network, a clique within a club, a row of an orchard
Degree 3 natural 2nd level subset, e.g., a section of a network, a subcommittee within a club, a section of an orchard
Degree 4 complex natural system or pattern within a set (e.g., the circulatory system, the heating system)
Degree 5 subset of set (unknown if natural or select subconfiguration)
Degree 6 complex/circumstantial select pattern/arrangement within a set (e.g., the parts/things of a house damaged by fire)
Degree 7 2nd level subset (externally determined), e.g., select section of trees of an orchard
Degree 8 first level subset (externally determined), e.g., select rocks from a pile, select trees of an orchard
Degree 9 single select member (externally determined)


Supersets/Multi-Level Gestalts (e.g., musical note --> melody --> movement of musical piece --> symphony/suite, etc.)
Degree 1 3rd-level superset/gestalt based on number nodes
Degree 2 3rd-level superset/gestalt based on new layer of infrastructure
Degree 3 3rd-level superset/gestalt based on complexity leading to the appearance/manifestaton of emergent properties
Degree 4 2nd-level superset/gestalt based on number nodes
Degree 5 2nd-level superset/gestalt based on new layer of infrastructure
Degree 6 2nd-level superset/gestalt based on complexity leading to the appearance/manifestaton of emergent properties
Degree 7 4th-level superset/gestalt based on number nodes
Degree 8 4th-level superset/gestalt based on new layer of infrastructure
Degree 9 4th-level superset/gestalt based on complexity leading to the appearance/manifestaton of emergent properties


Degree of Attention or Determination
Degree 1 concentrate fully upon; pay utmost attention to
Degree 2 concentrate to point of distraction, to be ‘lost’ in X-ing
Degree 3 pay strict attention to
Degree 4 determined to
Degree 5 pay attention to; attend to; be careful that you…; heed
Degree 6 keep an eye on
Degree 7 take some notice of
Degree 8 barely notice; take little notice of
Degree 9 ignore completely

Dispersion or Separability of a Configurative Set
Degree 1 in total contact / contiguous mass of; pile, “ball of…”
Degree 2 non-contiguous but closely connected, interlinked, each linked to adjacent via connecting medium (like web); cluster
Degree 3 connected via intervening central medium (like a vine or branches); bunch
Degree 4 not physically connected but with immediate accessibility and knowledge of other member actions
Degree 5 scattered - contact with nearest member possible but less possible with others
Degree 6 “virtual” association only
Degree 7 temporal (iterative) set – iteration at long intervals
Degree 8 temporal (iterative) set – iteration at frequent intervals
Degree 9 temporal (iterative) set – iteration at very short, immediate intervals / one after another


Spatio-Temporal Separability of a Configurative Set
Degree 1

Logical connectedness only (spatial)

Degree 2 Loosely integrated spatially – one positioned far away from another
Degree 3 Loosely integrated spatially – one positioned a little ways away from another
Degree 4 Well-integrated spatially – one positioned right next to or behind another
Degree 5 Both spatially and temporally well-integrated (one right after another)
Degree 6 Well-integrated temporally – one right after the other
Degree 7 Loosely integrated temporally – one a little while after the other
Degree 8 Loosely integrated temporally – one a long while after the other
Degree 9 Logical connectedness only (temporal)


Subset of Duplex Set
Degree 1 first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of duplex set or pair (e.g., upper lip, inhale/inhalation, left hand)
Degree 2 beginning or leading “edge” of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 3 middle section of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 4 ending or trailing “edge” of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 5 midpoint, peak, or lull between the 2 halves of a duplex set or pair
Degree 6 beginning or leading “edge” of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 7 middle section of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 8 ending or trailing “edge” of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object
Degree 9 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of duplex set or pair (e.g., lower lip, exhale/exhalation, right hand)


Degree of Newness/Revision
Degree 1 new = original + new, i.e., never before seen
Degree 2 new = never before seen within current context, e.g., a new student
Degree 3 new = role, i.e., never functioning/existing in this capacity/manner before
Degree 4 new/other = replacement + new
Degree 5 new/other = additional instance + new
Degree 6 new/other = revision + additional
Degree 7 new/other = revision + replacement
Degree 8 new/other/different = different, not seen/used before within current context; status as addition/replacement unknown or inapplicable
Degree 9 new/other/different = different + new; status as addition/replacement unknown or inapplicable


Comparison Specifications (Used with Levels ) - see Section 6.2 and Section 6.2.5
Degree 1 “more”/“less” = extent/amount/volume
Degree 2 “harder”/“weaker” = degree of intensity or effort
Degree 3 “longer”/“shorter” = duration; time spent being/doing
Degree 4 “better”/“worse” = quality / style
Degree 5 “more efficiently”/“less efficiently” = efficiency / effort relative to outcome
Degree 6 “greater”/“poorer” = relevant outcome / bottom-line result
Degree 7 combo of 4, 5, and 6
Degree 8 combo of 1, 2, and 3
Degree 9 combo of 1 through 6


-ln / -nl
Spread/wake/trail/area/expanse created by passage of entity
Degree 1 quasi-linear “trail” or wake left behind on path of linear movement; trail or wake is not composed of the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., slime trail left by snail, footprints left on snow, mowed down foliage left by moving convoy, etc.)
Degree 2 quasi-linear spread of entity stretching behind linearly moving “head” (e.g., a line of soldiers put in place to create a front, a line left on a piece of paper as written by an ink pen, path of a ball of string or skein of yarn as it unravels while rolling down an incline)
Degree 3 quasi-linear trail/wake/spread left behind passage as line of demarcation/boundary/barrier
Degree 4 2-d quasi-planar wake left behind on path of movement; wake is not composed of the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., aftermath of a forest fire, cleaned area of dirty floor or wall after it has been wiped by a mop or dustcloth)
Degree 5 2-d quasi-planar spread stretching behind moving front (e.g., area of spreading flames in a forest fire, area being inundated by a flood, area of a wall being covered up by plaster by workmen, coating of an apple dipped in chocolate, area of floor covered up by a rug)
Degree 6 2-d quasi-planar wake/spread left behind passage as area of demarcation/zone/restricted area
Degree 7 3-d volume left behind a moving front; volume is not composed of or inundated with the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., area left behind the passage of a tidal wave, column of superheated air left behind the passage of a rocket
Degree 8 3-d volume inundated by spread of moving front (e.g., spread of a gas within a room, area inundated by fog, volume of a container taken up by substance placed/poured/stuffed into it)
Degree 9 3-d volume left behind passage of moving front as volume/spatial area of demarcation/zone/restricted space

The above affix distinguishes movement of an entity from the “trail” or spread left behind, e.g., movement which leaves behind a wake or affected area; used with motion roots as well as roots designating shapes/forms. Use of the above suffixes in conjunction with the various roots pertaining to paths of translative movement allows for very nuanced translations of English words such as surround, cover, inundate, enclose, expand, spread out, encompass, etc.


Degree of Shift/Change/Transition (used for both spatial and temporal contexts)
Degree 1 sharp break, sudden shift from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another with no discernible transition period/zone (i.e., point-like/instantaneous transition)
Degree 2 disjointed/non-contiguous/non-continuous break/shift from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 3 extremely brief/small/barely discernible transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 4 somewhat brief/small/discernible transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 5 normal/standard/expected transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 6 somewhat variable/changing/fluctuating transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 7 highly variable/chaotic transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 8 smooth, gradual transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another
Degree 9 very gradual/almost imperceptible rate/degree of change/transition from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another


-lm / -ml
n-numbered angles/facets/faces/sides/points/forms
Degree 1 uneven /assymmetrical n–sided 2-D obtusely angled form (e.g., quadrilateral, pentagonoid, hexagonoid
Degree 2 uneven/assymetrical n-pointed 2-D acutely angled “star” formation
Degree 3 uneven/assymetrical n-faceted 3-D solid
Degree 4 uneven/assymmetrical n-faced 3-D solid (e.g., n-hedron-like solid)
Degree 5 having n number of 3-D projections/spikes/pointed surfaces
Degree 6 symmetrical n-faced 3-D solid (e.g., tetrahedron, dodecahedron)
Degree 7 symetrical n-faceted 3-D solid
Degree 8 symetrical n-pointed 2-D acutely angled “star” formation (can be used with numbers as low as 2, which would refer to an elongated diamond shape)
Degree 9 symmetrical n–sided 2-D form (e.g., square, pentagon, hexagon)

The above affix is used with the number stems (see Chapter 12) to provide words for forms, shapes, and solids bearing a distinct number of angles, points, sides, facets, etc.

Alternate forms of Comparison Operators ( Levels) (see Section 6.2.3) - V1C forms correspond to relative comparison, V2C forms to absolute comparison.


Material States/Forms (non-solid / quasi-solid)
Degree 1 X as liquid
Degree 2 X as goo or slime-like substance
Degree 3 X as powder or dust-like substance
Degree 4 X as gravel or sand-like substance
Degree 5 X as gas
Degree 6 X as wax(y) or clay-like substance
Degree 7 X as rubber(y) or eslastic substance
Degree 8 X as flexible subtance like cotton or cloth
Degree 9 X as flaky subtance or shavings


Material States/Forms (solids)
Degree 1 X as frozen
Degree 2 X as carvable substance (like wood or soap)
Degree 3 X as chalk-like, friable substance
Degree 4 X as rock or cement-like substance
Degree 5 X as solid
Degree 6 X in natural chunks or randomly-shaped solid pieces
Degree 7 X as block-like or formed pieces
Degree 8 X as hardened/durable subtance
Degree 9 X as metal(lic)



Transformation for Use

Degree 1 Cured (transformed by natural chemical process)
Degree 2 Treated
Degree 3 Processed (transformed by artificial/man-made process)
Degree 4 Transformed via exposure to or saturation w/ other substance(s)
Degree 5 Cooked
Degree 6 Soaked/saturated/marinated with liquid(s)
Degree 7 Derived (chemically or processually) from something else
Degree 8 Fermented
Degree 9 Pickled/Brined


Means of Transportation/Conveyance
Degree 1 holder / stabilizer for (transporting/holding) X
Degree 2 mystical/magical/supernatural means for (transporting/holding) X
Degree 3 automatic or separately controlled vehicle/vessel used for (transporting/holding) X
Degree 4 automated/electronic means for (transporting/holding) X
Degree 5 manually operated vessel/vehicle used for (transporting/holding) X
Degree 6 jury-rigged means for (transporting/holding) X
Degree 7 method/practice used for (transporting/holding) X
Degree 8 device used for (transporting/holding) X
Degree 9 rule/regulation/by-law for (transporting/holding) X


Featural Properties
Degree 1 functional mainfestation/portion/piece of X
Degree 2 container(ful) of X
Degree 3 a sample of X
Degree 4 a display(ing) of X
Degree 5 an instance of X
Degree 6 an aspect/characteristic/trait of X
Degree 7 a feature/function of X
Degree 8 a highlight / key feature of X
Degree 9 an example of X


Stage of a Process
Degree 1 onset/initiation/birth of X
Degree 2 development/build-up of X
Degree 3 point of no return/iminent transition of X
Degree 4 plateau stage, rest or pause before next stage of X
Degree 5 (at) peak / in prime / mature stage
Degree 6 abrupt or premature termination of X
Degree 7 gradual decline of X
Degree 8 end stage / final state / terminal or last stage
Degree 9 cessation / finished / over / dead


Motive/Reason for Conglomeration/Coming Together of Gestalt Entity
Degree 1 by voluntary/volitional association
Degree 2 by appointment to the task
Degree 3 by custom/societal convention/expectation
Degree 4 by random chance
Degree 5 by being forced to
Degree 6 by being pressured
Degree 7 by reluctant volunteering
Degree 8 for pragmatic/utilitarian reasons
Degree 9 by eager/enthusiastic volunteering


Inability/Incapacity Due To . . .
Degree 1 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to absence/loss of resource(s)
Degree 2 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to absence/loss of physical means
Degree 3 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to absence/loss of skill/knowledge
Degree 4 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to blockage/prevention of access to resource(s)
Degree 5 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to blockage/prevention of access to physical means
Degree 6 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to blockage/prevention of access to skill/knowledge
Degree 7 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to psychological trauma
Degree 8 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to physical trauma
Degree 9 inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to loss/absence of desire



Degree of (Un-)Pleasantness (of Effect or Result)
Degree 1 maximally unpleasant, horrible, ghastly, terrible
Degree 2 very unpleasant, awful
Degree 3 unpleasant, mildly awful
Degree 4 somewhat unpleasant, disagreeable
Degree 5 neutral, neither pleasant nor unpleasant, bland
Degree 6 somewhat pleasant, agreeable
Degree 7 pleasant, a nice experience
Degree 8 very pleasant, pleasureable
Degree 9 maximally pleasant, very pleasureable, exstacy



Degree 1 acquired by chance/whim/having stumbled upon
Degree 2 acquired by mental effort/learning/study/creation
Degree 3 acquired by informal, spur-of-the-moment search
Degree 4 acquired by trickery/subterfuge
Degree 5 innate/inherent
Degree 6 acquired by formal search
Degree 7 acquired by informal agreement/negotiation
Degree 8 acquired by formally negotiated trade or deal
Degree 9 acquired by purchase


Degree of Capacity or Talent for...
Degree 1 no capacity/talent for X(-ing)
Degree 2 almost no capacity/talent for X(-ing)
Degree 3 poor/little capacity/talent for X(-ing)
Degree 4 capacity/talent for X(-ing)
Degree 5 capacity/talent for X(-ing)
Degree 6 above average/good capacity/talent for X(-ing)
Degree 7 very good capacity/talent for X(-ing)
Degree 8 excellent capacity/talent for X(-ing)
Degree 9 outstanding capacity/talent for X(-ing)


Degree 1 give up X-ing / give up on X
Degree 2 lose faith/belief in X(-ing)
Degree 3 stop trying to X
Degree 4 undermine (efforts to) X
Degree 5 refuse to X
Degree 6 lose sense of resolve/commitment to X
Degree 7 no longer have passion for X / lose passion for X
Degree 8 lose ability to do/be/make X
Degree 9 lack means/ability to X


Degree 1 symbol/emblem/logo representing/standing for X
Degree 2 allegorical reference to X
Degree 3 stand-in/substitute for X
Degree 4 symptom/consequence of X
Degree 5 representation/depiction/illustration of X
Degree 6 trace/clue/vestige of X
Degree 7 record of X
Degree 8 pointer to/indicator of X
Degree 9 map/blueprint/schematic diagram of X


Degree of Engagement/Involvement
Degree 1 avoiding X(-ing) at all costs; run away from X(-ing)
Degree 2 averse to X(-ing); fear X(-ing)
Degree 3 shirk involvement in X(-ing); not be/get involved in
Degree 4 to X for appearance' sake only; to X solely for show
Degree 5 lackluster interest/involvement in X(-ing)
Degree 6 marginal interest/involvement in X(-ing)
Degree 7 limited/partial involvement in X(-ing)
Degree 8 fully involved/engrossed in X(-ing)
Degree 9 irreversibly involved/engrossed in X(-ing)


Degree of Operational Functionality
Degree 1 disintegrated, in pieces, shattered
Degree 2 irreparably damaged, ruined
Degree 3 badly damaged, non-operational, non-functional (with possibilty of being repaired)
Degree 4 damaged -- only partially functional (i.e., some parts/aspects are functional while others are not)
Degree 5 something wrong with X, not functioning properly, something not right with X
Degree 6 impaired -- functional but not performing to full extent of output or efficiency
Degree 7 in fair working order/condition
Degree 8 in good working order/condition
Degree 9 in optimum working order / in excellent condition


Meta-level representation/coordination/analysis
Degree 1 formal theory explaining/coordinating X
Degree 2 plan explaining/coordinating X
Degree 3 idea explaining/coordinating X
Degree 4 folk theory or accepted societal convention explaining/coordinating X
Degree 5 illustration/picture/graphic representation explaining/coordinating X
Degree 6 physical model explaining/coordinating X
Degree 7 mathematical model explaining/coordinating X
Degree 8 logical model explaining/coordinating X
Degree 9 metaphorical representation of X

Linguistic Hedges (1st group)
Degree 1

more or less

Degree 2

for all practical purposes / to all intents and purposes / practically / virtually/all but technically

Degree 3

sort of / kind of

Degree 4

strictly speaking

Degree 5

essentially /  in essence / basically

Degree 6

might as well be

Degree 7

in one sense

Degree 8

in some sense

Degree 9

par excellence


Linguistic Hedges (2nd group)
Degree 1

in a sense  /  in a way

Degree 2

in a manner of speaking

Degree 3

more of a ___ than anything else

Degree 4

(what can be looked at (as) / (what) can be viewed as / (what) one thinks of (as) / one might say that

Degree 5

loosely speaking

Degree 6


Degree 7

in name only

Degree 8

so to say

Degree 9

for all I know / for all one knows


Alternative suffix forms for Phase categories (see Sec. 5.5)
Degree 1 Contextual
Degree 2 Punctual
Degree 3 Iterative
Degree 4 Repetitive
Degree 5 Intermittent
Degree 6 Recurrent
Degree 7 Frequentative
Degree 8 Fragmentative
Degree 9




7.4.14 Locational Suffixes

-rš / -šr
Locational Octant Markers for Object Being Located (see Section 10.3.3)
Degree 1 +X / +Y / +Z = “right / ahead / above” = Octant 1
Degree 2 +X / +Y / -Z = “right / ahead / below” = Octant 2
Degree 3 +X / -Y / +Z = “right / behind / above” = Octant 3
Degree 4 +X / -Y / -Z = “right / behind / below” = Octant 4
Degree 5 object at rest relative to other object
Degree 6 -X / +Y / +Z = “left / ahead / above” = Octant 5
Degree 7 -X / +Y / -Z = “left / ahead / below” = Octant 6
Degree 8 -X / -Y / +Z = “left / behind / above” = Octant 7
Degree 9 -X / -Y / -Z = “left / behind / below” = Octant 8


Degree of Proximity
Degree 1 too close
Degree 2 as close as possible without contact
Degree 3 very close to
Degree 4 close to
Degree 5 somewhat close to
Degree 6 not very close to / somewhat far from
Degree 7 far from / distant from
Degree 8 far away / very far from
Degree 9 too far away


Degree of Contact
Degree 1 melded with / blended with / fused
Degree 2 inseparable(ly) / locked together / bonded
Degree 3 linked / attached / connected / joined
Degree 4 touching intimately / touching all over / flush with / in close contact with
Degree 5 deliberately touching at several spots or places or over a fair area
Degree 6 deliberately touching at one spot or place
Degree 7 casually or incidentally touching at several spots or places or over a fair area
Degree 8 casually or incidentally touching at one spot or place
Degree 9 barely touching / hardly touching at all / touching at one small spot

From Viewpoint/Perspective of
Degree 1 from viewpoint/perspective of speaker
Degree 2 from viewpoint/perspective of 3rd party visible/near to speaker
Degree 3 from viewpoint/perspective of the last-mentioned argument/referent
Degree 4 from viewpoint/perspective of a party other than one under discussion
Degree 5 from viewpoint/perspective of 3rd party under discussion
Degree 6 from viewpoint/perspective of an as-yet-undetermined 3rd party
Degree 7 from viewpoint/perspective of the first-mentioned argument/referent
Degree 8 from viewpoint/perspective of 3rd party visible/near to listener
Degree 9 from viewpoint/perspective of listener


7.4.15   Format Expansion Suffixes

These VxC suffixes were first mentioned in Section 6.4.3 and are used in conjunction with the Vf Format/Context suffix in Slot XII to accomplish the following:


Twelve consonant forms are used for these Slot XI suffixes, which combine with the three suffix-types to give the 36 forms necessary to specify the nine possible configurations and four possible perspectives of the incorporated stem.  In turn, the nine suffix-degrees times eight vocalic Vf suffixes in Slot XII combine to identify which of the 72 primary noun cases constitutes the Format of the incorporated stem.  All these forms are shown in the matrices below.

Perspective & Configuration of Incorporated Stem – Shown by VxC value





















































Expanded Format Corresponding to Case – Shown by VXC suffix degree x Vf suffix value

















19 PAR




37 CMM




55 DFF






20 CRS


38 COM


56 PER




21 CPS


39 CNJ


57 PRO




22 PRD


40 UTL


58 PCV




23 MED


41 ABE


59 PCR




24 APL


42 CVS


60 ELP




25 PUR


43 COR


61 ALP




26 CSD


44 DEP


62 INP




27 ESS


45 PVS


63 EPS


10 DER




28 ASI




46 PTL




64 PLM




11 SIT


29 FUN


47 CON


65 LIM


12 POS


30 TFM


48 EXC


66 LOC


13 PRP


31 REF


49 AVR


67 ORI


14 GEN


32 CLA


50 CMP


68 PSV


15 ATT


33 CNV


51 SML


69 ALL


16 PDC


34 IDP


52 ASS


70 ABL


17 ITP


35 BEN


53 CNR


71 NAV


18 OGN


36 TSP


54 ACS


72 VOC


 * the default Vf suffix form is used (i.e., -a, -i, -e, or -u, depending on the formative’s Context)


Proceed to Chapter 8: Adjuncts >>




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