7.1 VxC Suffixes  7.3 Special Use of V_{3}C Suffixes  
7.2 SuffixTypes  7.4 List of Suffixes 
As we have seen in previous chapters, Ithkuil, like most languages, employs affixes (including both prefixes, suffixes, and
infixes) in its morphology. However, one type of affix to the formative, the Vx+C suffix from Slot XI, operates in a manner warranting separate analysis. This chapter describes the morphophonological structure of these Vx+C suffixes (how they are
formed from consonants and vowels), as well as their function.
I 
II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 
VII 
VIII 
IX 
X 
XI 
XII 
XIII 
XIV 
XV 
(((Cv) 
VL) 
Cg/Cs) 
Vr 
(Cx/Cv 
Vp/VL) 
Cr 
Vc 
Ci +Vi 
Ca 
VxC 
(Vf 
(’Cb)) 
[tone] 
[stress] 
Phase + 
Valence 
Validation OR Aspect (+ Mood) 
Pattern + Stem + Function 
Incorp.Root OR Phase + Sanction (+ Illocution) 
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root OR Valence 
Root 
Case 
Illocution + Mood + Polarity 
Essence + Extension + Perspective + Configuration + Affiliation 
Deriv. Suffix 
Context + Format 
Bias 
Version 
Designa tion + Relation 
7.1 VxC SUFFIXES 
All Ithkuil affixes we have analyzed up to this point, whether prefixes or infixes, have consisted of either a single vocalic form (i.e., a single vowel, a diphthong, or a dyssyllabic vocalic conjunct), or a single consonantal form (i.e., a single consonant, a geminated consonant, or a consonant cluster), each of which has been invariable in its form. Furthermore, we have found that only one such affix can occupy its given slot in the formative’s structure.
However, the VxC suffix from Slot XI is different in three respects: (1) it is comprised of both a vowel form and a consonantal form, (2) the vocalic portion of the suffix can mutate, and (3) more than one VxC suffix can occupy Slot XI in the formative (i.e., VxC suffixes can be strung together sequentially one after the other).
While the consonantal portion of the suffix, C, is always invariable, the vocalic portion Vx mutates depending on two morphological factors known as degree and suffixtype. The nine different degrees will be discussed in detail in the next section below. As for suffixtype, every consonantalbased Vx+C suffix falls into one of three types, which determine what vowel or vowels will come before the invariable consonant C. The three suffixtypes are labelled V_{1}, V_{2}, and V_{3}, in reference to the vowel portion of the suffix.
In addition to the three suffixtypes, the vowel(s) associated with suffixes are also determined by degree. There are nine degrees, each of which has three associated vowel infixes corresponding to the three suffixtypes. Table 24 below shows the vowel(s) associated with each suffixtype.
Table 24:
Vocalic Infixes for Consonantal Suffixes by Suffix Type
Suffix:
V_{1}C 
Suffix
Type 2: V_{2}C 
Suffix
Type 3: V_{3}C 

Degree 1  iC 
iuC / uaC 
ieC 
Degree 2  öC 
auC /oaC 
iöC 
Degree 3  eC 
êC 
ioC 
Degree 4  îC / uëC 
euC / oeC 
oiC / öaC 
Degree 5  (a)C 
âC 
üaC / uìC / iùC 
Degree 6  ûC / iëC 
eiC / eoC 
ouC / öeC 
Degree 7  oC 
ôC 
uoC 
Degree 8  üC 
aiC / eaC 
uöC 
Degree 9  uC 
iaC / uiC 
ueC 
Applying the above rules to three example suffixes we can see in Table 25 below how these suffixes would actually appear in conjunction with the word eqal ‘person’ :
TABLE 25: Example of Application of Suffixes to a Stem
Suffix:
V_{1}k 
Suffix
Type 2: V_{2}k 
Suffix
Type 3: V_{3}k 

Degree 1  eqalik 
eqaliuk / eqaluak 
eqaliek 
Degree 2  eqalök 
eqalauk /eqaloak 
eqaliök 
Degree 3  eqalek 
eqalêk 
eqaliok 
Degree 4  eqalîk / eqaluëk 
eqaleuk / eqaloek 
eqaloik / eqalöak 
Degree 5  eqalak 
eqalâk 
eqalüak / eqaluìk / eqaliùk 
Degree 6  eqalûk / eqaliëk 
eqaleik / eqaleok 
eqalouk / eqalöek 
Degree 7  eqalok 
eqalôk 
eqaluok 
Degree 8  eqalük 
eqalaik / eqaleak 
eqaluök 
Degree 9  eqaluk 
eqaliak / eqaluik 
eqaluek 
As for the morphosyntactic function of Degree, it is used
in Ithkuil to create a gradient system for all consonantal suffixes, which generally
indicates the degree to which the semantic concept underlying the particular
suffix applies to the particular stem. This gradient usually extends from zerodegree
(i.e., the particular concept or quality is absent or minimal) to a maximal
degree (i.e., the particular concept or quality is present in totality). We
will see in the tables of suffixes in Section 7.4 how this gradient system is used systematically in many
dynamic semantic contexts. As a preview we can illustrate the meanings associated
with the nine degrees for the suffix V_{1}d.
Degree 
Suffix 
Meaning 

1 
id  wholly lacking in / a complete absence of / not at all  
2 
öd  way too little / totally insufficient(ly) / not anywhere enough  
3 
ed  not enough / insufficient(ly) / under[+verb]  
4 
îd  not quite enough / somewhat insufficient(ly) / slightly under[+verb]  
5 
ad  enough (of) / sufficient(ly)  
6 
ûd  a little too (much) / more than needed / slightly over[+verb]  
7 
od  too / too much / over[+verb]  
8 
üd  way too much / totally over[+verb]  
9 
ud  nothing but / to the exclusion of all else 
It is important to remember that, since all morphosemantic
stems are both nominal and verbal in meaning, all suffixes to a stem have both
a nominal and a verbal meaning. Therefore, the choice whether to translate the
suffixes below into their nominal or verbal meaning is entirely dependent on
the morphosyntactical structure of the word within the context of its use in
a phrase or sentence as a whole.
For convenience’ sake, when referring to a particular suffix of specific type and degree, we will use the notation in the section above, utilizing a V for the variable vocalic component, a subscript 1, 2, or 3 indicating the suffixtype, followed by a slash and a number indicating the degree. Thus, the suffix nt of Type 1 and 4th degree will be written V_{1}nt/4, while the suffix r of Type 3 and 8th degree will be written V_{3}r/8, and so forth.
7.2 SUFFIXTYPES 
Each suffix category comes in three types, numbered 1, 2, and 3, indicated by variances in the initial vocalic component of the suffix. Use of the Type 1 version of a suffix caries a mere circumstantial meaning applicable to the context at hand in a subjectively incidental, happenstance, temporary, or informal manner, whereas the Type 2 version of a suffix implies a derivational meaning which can entail lexical differences when translating into English.
For example, the Type 1 suffix up, i.e., V_{1}p/9, and its Type 2 counterpart uip , i.e., V_{2}p/9, which both mean ‘exactly similar to…/identical…,’ the difference in usage being that the Type 1 suffix conveys merely a circumstantial or incidental similarity, while the Type 2 suffix implies that the similarity is an integral aspect of the word. In English, such a distinction would most likely be conveyed by using a different word. For example, note the difference when we add these two suffixes to the Ithkuil word eqal ‘person’: eqalup means ‘identicallooking person,’ whereas eqaluip means ‘twin.’ In this way, we can say that the suffix Vp with Type 1 vocalic infixes conveys a circumstantial application of its meaning to a stem, while with Type 2 vocalic infixes, it conveys a derivational application of its meaning (i.e., wholly new concepts or words are derived from the stem).
As for Type 3 suffixes, these are used in circumstances where the meaning of the suffix is meant to be applied not to the formative itself, but rather to the immediately adjacent suffix. This is somewhat analogous to the way that adverbs can be used to modify descriptive adjectives in English. For example, in the phrase suddenly blue sky, it is the blueness that is sudden, not the sky. In Ithkuil, Type 3 suffixes modify another suffix (usually the one following, unless there are only two suffixes on the stem, in which case the suffix order is irrelevant); this is done by using Type 3 vocalic infixes. For example, the suffix Vd/5, which means ‘enough / sufficient(ly),’ can be used both circumstantially (using Type 1 infixes) and derivationally (using Type 2 infixes) to modify a stem, or can be used to modify only the adjacent suffix (using Type 3 infixes). Such suffixes must immediately precede the suffix they are modifying, unless they are in wordfinal position, in which case they modify the immediately preceding suffix. This is illustrated below:
eqalad: ‘a sufficient person’ (i.e., one able to perform the task at hand)
eqalâd: ‘a recruit’ (i.e., one able to meet performance or entry requirements)
eqalüadûx: ‘a sufficiently large person’ (where suffix V_{1}x/6 = ‘large’)
7.2.1 Multiple Suffixation and Ordering of Suffixes
When adding two or more suffixes to a stem, the suffixes generally can be added to the stem in any order desired, with the exception of V_{3}C suffixes which modify an adjacent suffix. This latter type must precede the suffix it modifies, unless there are only two VxC suffixes to the word, in which case the order is irrelevant.
7.3 SPECIAL USE OF V_{3}C SUFFIXES 
Note that when a Type 3 suffix appears alone in Slot XI, unaccompanied by another VxC suffix, it serves a different purpose than normal. Such lone Type 3 suffixes are used as “shortcut” ways of displaying a type of adunct we will discuss in Chapter 8, called a personal reference adjunct. In these cases, the consonant portion of the suffix, rather than repesenting its usual suffix category, instead corresponds to one of the numerous personal reference categories we will discuss in Chapter 8, while the vowel portion of the suffix, rather than corresponding to one of nine degrees, instead correponds to one of nine noun cases. The details for utilizing these special V_{3}C suffixes are discussed in Section 8.1.5.
7.4 LIST OF SUFFIXES 
The 200 suffix categories are listed in the sections which follow, indicating the difference in meaning for each of the nine degrees. Recall that each of these suffixes may (theoretically) function as both Type 1 and Type 2 suffixes, the latter type often entailing a change of meaning or lexical shift when translating into English.
These suffixes correspond to various determiners and modifying adjectives in English having to do with denoting or identifying a noun within a larger context or discourse.
kt  DEF 
Degree Of Definiteness 
Degree 1  any (number of) [random selection  NOT quantitative/partitive “any”]; in any manner  
Degree 2  almost any; in almost any (number of) way(s)  
Degree 3  some X or other; in some way or other  
Degree 4  some certain X ; in some certain way [identity unknown]  
Degree 5  this X or that; a certain X or more; in this way or that [identity almost known – choices limited]  
Degree 6  a certain / a particular; in a certain or particular way [identity ascertainable]  
Degree 7  presumably this/that; apparently this X ; in that way presumably [tentatively identified]  
Degree 8  this/that/said; in said manner/(in) that way [identity known]  
Degree 9  at hand/under discussion/this one now/instant; in this manner [identity = present context] 
q’  DSR 
Degree Of Discretion 
Degree 1  announced/advertised/heralded; w/ public disclosure  
Degree 2  open & wellknown; with full public knowledge  
Degree 3  open/public; for all to see/publicly/openly  
Degree 4  shown, open, or available by request/ by request  
Degree 5  semipublic(ly), exclusive(ly)  
Degree 6  own/personal; personally  
Degree 7  own private; privately  
Degree 8  secret; secretly  
Degree 9  confidential/classified 
q^{h}  INL 
Degree Of Inclusion 
Degree 1  not a(ny), not one, no X whatsoever, none of X; in no such manner  
Degree 2  hardly any, barely any X; in hardly any such manner  
Degree 3  some few/a few certain … ; in a few certain ways  
Degree 4  some (of)/certain . . .; in certain ways  
Degree 5  several / more than a few / various / in various ways / in several different ways  
Degree 6  a significant portion of/a fair number of; in a fair number of ways  
Degree 7  most/in most ways  
Degree 8  almost every; in almost every way  
Degree 9  each/every; in each way 
rţ / ţr  EXT 
Exactness of Identity / Identity As a Referent Or Standard 
Degree 1  nothing like that X; nothing like that ; in no way similar  
Degree 2  somewhat like that X; somewhat so  
Degree 3  nearly or almost that X; nearly or almost so  
Degree 4  just about . . . / for all intents and purposes  
Degree 5  kind of / type of / this sort of; typically  
Degree 6  such (a); in such a manner  
Degree 7  clear (case of); clearly / certainly / indeed[in negative sentences = no way / at all]  
Degree 8  just like that; just so, thus(ly)  
Degree 9  the exact X / the very (one); exactly thus / exactly so 
ňs  FAM 
Degree Of Familiarity 
Degree 1  unknowable / alien; unable to even try Xing  
Degree 2  totally unfamiliar; totally unaccustomed to Xing  
Degree 3  unfamiliar; unaccustomed to Xing  
Degree 4  somewhat unfamiliar; somewhat unaccustomed to Xing  
Degree 5  only just (recently) familiar; only just recently familiar to Xing  
Degree 6  somewhat familiar; somewhat accustomed to Xing  
Degree 7  familiar/known; accustomed to Xing  
Degree 8  wellknown / utterly familiar with / ingrained; inherently accustomed or used to Xing  
Degree 9  intimate with; intimately involved with / intimately accustomed to 
p  SIM 
Degree Of Similarity 
Degree 1  opposite; as different as possible / at the other extreme  
Degree 2  completely different/dissimilar; in a totally different or dissimilar way  
Degree 3  rather different / barely similar / almost completely different or dissimilar; in an almost completely different way  
Degree 4  other [=different]; in another [=different] way  
Degree 5  somewhat different, only superficially similar; somewhat differently  
Degree 6  similar in the ways that count/similar down deep, some sort of X; similarly at deep level  
Degree 7  (somewhat) similar, only superficially different, sort of like, something like, Xlike; similarly  
Degree 8  very similar; very similarly  
Degree 9  [exactly the] same, indistinguishable from; in the [exactly] same way 
Deictic suffixes refer to the grammatical process of deixis,
the act of pointing to or pointing out. The suffixes correspond to the different
variants of the concepts of ‘here’ and ‘there.’ In Ithkuil,
distinctions are made in these suffixes as to whether a referent is near the
speaker, near the listener, distant from both, whether it is observable or accessible,
and in some case, whether it is alienable or inalienable (i.e., whether the
entity can be separated from the associated person).
č’  DEX 
Deixis Categories 
Degree 1  yonder / way over there somewhere / a long way away (not near anyone) [inaccessible or unobservable]  
Degree 2  over there somewhere (by third party) [inaccessible or observable]  
Degree 3  there somewhere (by listener) [inaccessible or observable]  
Degree 4  here somewhere (by speaker] [inaccessible or observable]  
Degree 5  here (by speaker and accessible]  
Degree 6  here with us (by speaker and listener and accessible]  
Degree 7  there [by listener and accessible]  
Degree 8  there (by third party, but accessible to speaker and listener)  
Degree 9  yonder / way over there [not near any party but accessible] 
č^{h}  DXX 
Additional Deixis Categories 
Degree 1  spread out/ everywhere / scattered yonder / all over out there [inaccessible]  
Degree 2  spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about listener / all over the place around listener [inaccessible]  
Degree 3  spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about speaker / all over the place / here and there [inaccessible]  
Degree 4  spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about speaker / all over / here & there [observable but inaccessible]  
Degree 5  spread out/ everywhere / scattered all throughout speaker / enveloping speaker [inalienable]  
Degree 6  spread out/ everywhere / scattered all throughout speaker / enveloping speaker [alienable]  
Degree 7  spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about speaker/all over the place / here and there [accessible]  
Degree 8  spread out/ everywhere / scattered all about listener / all over the place around listener [accessible]  
Degree 9  spread out/ everywhere / scattered yonder / all over out there [accessible] 
nn  SEQ 
Numerical Sequence 
Degree 1  first / initial; first(ly) / first of all  
Degree 2  second; secondly  
Degree 3  third; thirdly  
Degree 4  still near the beginning / not yet halfway  
Degree 5  the middle one, in between (sequentially)/ just about halfway there  
Degree 6  nearing the end  
Degree 7  third from last; antepenultimately  
Degree 8  next to last; penultimately  
Degree 9  last / final; last(ly) / finally (in terms of sequence) 
nš / šn  SQT 
Sequence Relative to Present Context 
Degree 1  immediately beforehand / first  
Degree 2  one before preceding  
Degree 3  the former; primarily  
Degree 4  two before preceding  
Degree 5  current/at hand; now/currently / at the moment [in sequence of events]  
Degree 6  second one after next  
Degree 7  the latter; secondarily  
Degree 8  one after next  
Degree 9  next / following; then / next 
c’  SQC 
Sequence of Cause and Effect 
Degree 1  originating; originally / in the first place / initially / at the outset  
Degree 2  preliminary; preliminarily  
Degree 3  preparatory / in preparation for / getting ready to  
Degree 4  awaited; waiting to/ waiting for [focus on imminency or sequential position, NOT on anticipation]  
Degree 5  precursor to; but just beforehand  
Degree 6  based on the preceding and setting the stage for what follows  
Degree 7  eventual / at last; at last / finally (result)  
Degree 8  following /...which follows; then subsequent to that / following that...  
Degree 9  subsequent / consequent; then / so / thus / therefore 
ň  COO 
Adjunctive Coordination 
Degree 1  in conjunction with / combined with / including X  
Degree 2  and / also / additionally/ furthermore/ moreover/ what’s more  
Degree 3  . . . and so forth / and so on / and all that/ and whatever else  
Degree 4  and at the same time / and simultaneously  
Degree 5  and [all in a series]  
Degree 6  or [potentially inclusive] = and/or  
Degree 7  either . . . or [exclusive or] / or else  
Degree 8  . . . or something else / or whatever / or whatever else  
Degree 9  either . . . or [exclusive or in a series] 
ňň  CTR 
Contrastive Coordination 
Degree 1  still / nevertheless / however — (despite seemingly inherent conflict or contradiction)  
Degree 2  besides / not just . . . but also / in addition to X… also  
Degree 3  even / or even / … still [e.g., thicker still]  
Degree 4  or [= otherwise]  
Degree 5  as opposed to / but not  
Degree 6  but [qualifying]  
Degree 7  however / on the other hand — (simple difference in expected outcome, no inherent conflict)  
Degree 8  but (rather) [= substitute]  
Degree 9  just in case / should the need arise 
nz / zn  DST 
Distributive Coordination 
Degree 1  applying to each equally [unfairly]  
Degree 2  applied selectively by decision/preference [unfairly]  
Degree 3  respectively (=to each) but in differing amounts [unfairly]  
Degree 4  selectively at random [unfairly]  
Degree 5  respectively [= applied in the sequentially spoken order]  
Degree 6  selectively at random [fairly]  
Degree 7  respectively (=to each) but in differing amounts [fairly]  
Degree 8  applied selectively by decision/calculation [fairly]  
Degree 9  applying to each equally [fairly] 
t^{h}  TPI 
Impact or Duration Over Time 
Degree 1  immediate / at this instant / for this moment; momentary  
Degree 2  temporary / for right now / for the moment; temporarily / in the meantime [duration of context. recent]  
Degree 3  short term/for now; in the short term/for now/ / for the immediate future [hours to days]  
Degree 4  for the meantime / for the meanwhile [days to weeks to months]  
Degree 5  for a while / for some time to come [months to several years]  
Degree 6  for the foreseeable future [years to decades]  
Degree 7  long term/in the long run; over the course of time [over the course of a lifetime, decades to centuries]  
Degree 8  through the ages / over the course of the ages [centuries to millenia]; permanent  
Degree 9  everpresent / eternal / constant / incessant / neverending; from now on / eternally / all the time / for all time 
rč  TPD 
Temporary Duration 
Degree 1  brief, momentary (lasting a few seconds)  
Degree 2  for a "minute"  
Degree 3  for a few minutes (e.g., "while you wait")  
Degree 4  for a little while (i.e., up to an hour approximately)  
Degree 5  for a while (i.e., from one to several hours)  
Degree 6  for today (i.e., from several hours to 24 hours approximately)  
Degree 7  for one or two days  
Degree 8  from two to four days  
Degree 9  up to a week 
ll  FRQ 
Degree Of Frequency 
Degree 1  never  
Degree 2  rare / hardly ever / once in a great while; rarely / almost unheard of  
Degree 3  infrequent; seldom / infrequently  
Degree 4  now and then / from time to time / off and on / every so often / now and again occasionally / sometimes  
Degree 5  frequent; frequently / often  
Degree 6  usual; usually / customarily / generally  
Degree 7  almost always / rarely fail to / routinely  
Degree 8  everfaithful / unwavering; always / every time / without fail / like clockwork / never fail to  
Degree 9  constant / continuous; constantly / continuously / all the time 
z  TPR 
Temporal Placement/Reaction/Viewpoint 
Degree 1  wistfully looking back / in the (good) old days [with longing]  
Degree 2  in hindsight / looking back  
Degree 3  upon further consideration/upon reflection  
Degree 4  initial; at first/initially / at first blush / at first glance  
Degree 5  now that the moment has come / now that the time is here / now that the deed or event is at hand  
Degree 6  any moment now; on the verge of; just about to  
Degree 7  imminent(ly) ; very soon  
Degree 8  soon [w/ anticipation]  
Degree 9  someday. . . / one day [with longing] 
kk  TPP 
Temporal Position Relative to Present 
Degree 1  in the remote past, once upon a time  
Degree 2  past/former/previous; once [e.g., I was young once], a long time ago  
Degree 3  recent; recently  
Degree 4  . . . just past / just (happened)  
Degree 5  present/current/present day; now / at present / presently / currently  
Degree 6  imminent; just about to / about to / on the verge of  
Degree 7  forthcoming / soon to arrive; soon  
Degree 8  future /  to be / to come / eventual(ly); someday...  
Degree 9  in the remote future / far in the future / long after we’re gone 
pţ  ATC 
Degree Of Anticipation 
Degree 1  longawaited / long looked for  
Degree 2  eagerly awaited; can’t wait for / dying to  
Degree 3  anticipated / awaited; in anticipation of / look forward to  
Degree 4  up for / up to  
Degree 5  await / wait to / wait for / waiting to  
Degree 6  ambivalent about ; could take or leave it  
Degree 7  not looking forward to  
Degree 8  dreaded; dread Xing  
Degree 9  longdreaded; dread the day when 
nž / žn  LAT 
Degree Of Lateness/Earliness 
Degree 1  way too early / way too soon  
Degree 2  too early / too soon  
Degree 3  a little early / a bit soon  
Degree 4  almost late / not a moment too soon  
Degree 5  just in time / sharp / on the dot  
Degree 6  a little late  
Degree 7  late  
Degree 8  too late  
Degree 9  way too late 
nt / tn  ITN 
Degree Of Iteration 
Degree 1  just once / once only  
Degree 2  again / once more / one more time / re  
Degree 3  again and again / keep Xing over and over [focus on habit, not periodicity]  
Degree 4  again and again / keep Xing over and over [focus on periodicity, not habit]  
Degree 5  irregular, unpredictable ; at irregular or unpredictable intervals  
Degree 6  [cyclic] return of... / ...once again; return to / …back again [e.g., summer’s back]  
Degree 7  intermittent; intermittently / at regular intervals  
Degree 8  repetitive / repeating; repeatedly  
Degree 9  constantly cycling or repeating / continuously or perpetually repeating / constant, eternal, perpetual repetition of 
kţ  RPN 
Pattern of SpatioTemporal Repetition or Distribution of Set Members 
Degree 1  slowpaced repetition at regular intervals  
Degree 2  slowpaced repetition at irregular intervals  
Degree 3  slowpaced repetition at mixed intervals  
Degree 4  midpaced repetition at irregular intervals  
Degree 5  midpaced repetition at regular intervals  
Degree 6  midpaced repetition at mixed intervals  
Degree 7  fastpaced repetition at mixed intervals  
Degree 8  fastpaced repetition at irregular intervals  
Degree 9  fastpaced repetition at regular intervals 
rl  CAL 
Calendrical Sequencing (used with numerical stems to indicate calendrical concepts) 
Degree 1  [sequential number +] day of the week  
Degree 2  [sequential number +] day of the month  
Degree 3  [sequential number +] day of the year  
Degree 4  [sequential number +] week of the month  
Degree 5  [sequential number +] month of the year  
Degree 6  [sequential number +] year  
Degree 7  [sequential number +] decade of the century  
Degree 8  [sequential number +] century  
Degree 9  [sequential number +] millenium 
The V1 value of these suffixes merely indicates sequential position on the calendar, e.g., llalirl 'the first day of the week,' whereas V2 values give the names of the days of the weeks, days of the month, months of the year, etc., e.g., llaluarl 'Sunday,' ksaluarl 'Monday,' ksalârl 'February,' llalökearl 'the 21st Century', mřalik (ňial) xmalukeorl 'the year 1999.'
Note: the CAL suffix inherently conveys Functional (FNC) Context, since calendrical notions are, of course, societal conventions as opposed to being natural ontological concepts. Therefore, for formatives carrying the CAL suffix it is not necessary to inflect for FNC Context.
lz / zl  DGR 
Exactness of Degree 
Degree 1  unknowable degree or amount of  
Degree 2  unknown degree or amount of  
Degree 3  almost impossible to determine degree of  
Degree 4  nowhere near the desired degree of  
Degree 5  hard to pinpoint / hard to determine / difficult to determine  
Degree 6  fluctuating, everchanging (amount of); to changing/fluctuating degree or extent of  
Degree 7  vaguely around / vaguely in the range of / somewhere around / loosely in the vicinity of  
Degree 8  approximate(ly) / somewhere around / just about; or something like that / …or so  
Degree 9  exact/specific; exactly / specifically / on the dot / sharp / to the letter 
ss  PTW 
Contiguous Portion of the Whole 
Degree 1  no amount of / none (of)  
Degree 2  a very few / a tiny amount of / a tiny number of; only a tiny bit / a tiny bit  
Degree 3  few / a little / a bit; a little / a bit  
Degree 4  some, any [= some of] / some of or any of the / a portion; partially / to some extent  
Degree 5  a fair number of / a fair amount of / pretty (+adj.) / fairly (+adj.) / rather / somewhat; more or less / to a fair extent  
Degree 6  much / many / (such) a lot of / very / quite (a); quite; a lot / very much / to a large extent  
Degree 7  a whole lot of / a verly large amount or number of / immensely, in an incredible amount / so much…; so  
Degree 8  most of / mostly  
Degree 9  every / all (of)/whole; entirely/in its entirety 
ns / sn  PTT 
NonContiguous (i.e., Intermixed) Portion of the Whole 
Degree 1  no amount of / none (of)  
Degree 2  a very few / a tiny amount of / a tiny number of; only a tiny bit / a tiny bit  
Degree 3  few/a little / a bit; a little / a bit  
Degree 4  some, any [= some of] / some of or any of the / a portion; partially / to some extent  
Degree 5  a fair number of / a fair amount of / pretty (+adj.) / fairly (+adj.) / rather / somewhat; more or less / to a fair extent  
Degree 6  much / many / (such) a lot of / very / quite (a); quite /; a lot / very much / to a large extent  
Degree 7  a whole lot of / a very large amount or number of / immensely, in an incredible amount / so much…; so  
Degree 8  most of / mostly  
Degree 9  every / all (of) / whole; entirely / in its entirety 
mt / tm  CNM 
Type of Container/Packaging/Conveyance/Holder 
Degree 1  jar/pot of X [storage + containment]  
Degree 2  dispensortype container/package, e.g., tube, barrel, bottle for multiple use  
Degree 3  can/tin/bottle/sealed pouch [= storage + packaging + protection/preservation]  
Degree 4  carton/box/basket [= temporary containment]  
Degree 5  natural or generic mass containment/packaging/holder (e.g., a loaf of bread, a lump of clay)  
Degree 6  satchel, pack of [= for personal conveyance/moving]  
Degree 7  pile of, load of [= in context of conveyance/moving or bulk storage]  
Degree 8  Xful of [+ Partitive], e.g., a roomful of clowns, a skyful of clouds, a treeful of leaves, a spoonful  
Degree 9  embodiment/manifestation of abstract essence, e.g., a life form [= an embodiment of life] 
d  SUF 
Degree Of Sufficiency 
Degree 1  none at all; not…at all  
Degree 2  way too little / woefully insufficient / way too few; not...anywhere enough / totally under[+verb]  
Degree 3  not enough / insufficient / too few; not...enough / insufficiently / under[+verb]  
Degree 4  not quite enough / slightly insufficient; not...quite enough / a bit insufficiently / slightly under[+verb]  
Degree 5  enough (of) / sufficient; enough / sufficiently  
Degree 6  a little too / a little too much; a little too much / slightly over [+verb]  
Degree 7  too / toomuch; too much / too many / over [+verb]  
Degree 8  way too / way too much; way too much / totally over [+verb]  
Degree 9  inundated with; to the exclusion of all else / to the point that X overwhelms or takes over 
b  EXN 
Degree or Extent 
Degree 1  none (at all); to no extent at all  
Degree 2  tiniest part of / a bit of; to smallest extent / hardly / barely  
Degree 3  only a part of / only some of; to some extent / partially / partly / somewhat  
Degree 4  less than usual / below normal; less so than usual/ to a lesser degree or extent than usual  
Degree 5  the normal, expected or usual amount (of)  
Degree 6  more than usual / above normal; more so than usual; to a greater degree or extent than normal  
Degree 7  way more than usual / way above normal or expected; to a much greater degree or extent than normal  
Degree 8  almost as much as possible / near(ly) maximum  
Degree 9  total, ful; to greatest extent / maximum / maximal; maximally / at full capacity, e.g., She bought out the store. 
rd / dr  EXD 
Dynamically Changing Degree or Extent 
Degree 1  less and less / fewer and fewer / ongoing decrease in; decreasingly  
Degree 2  a lot fewer / a lot less (of); a lot less  
Degree 3  fewer / less (of); less  
Degree 4  a little less (of) / a bit less (of); a little less / a bit less  
Degree 5  a fluctuating amount or degree of; to a fluctuating degree or extent  
Degree 6  a little more (of) / a bit more (of); a little more / a bit more  
Degree 7  more (of); more  
Degree 8  a lot more (of); a lot more  
Degree 9  more and more / continuing increase in / increasingly more / everincreasing 
This suffix is used with all vectorlike or gradient concepts. When used with the COMPLETIVE version, degrees 1 and 9 imply attainment of a change in state, e.g., sleepiness → sleep.
zb  RCO 
Recoil in place (spring back; snap back; fall back into place) 
zg  TFI 
Back & forth; to & fro in place (e.g., pendulum, wagging tail) 
žd  TFV 
Back & forth over linear vector (e.g., snakelike; zigzag) 
zd  CRI 
Cycle or circular motion in place (spin, revolve) 
žb  CRV 
Cycle or circular motion over linear vector (e.g., train wheels, bike wheels) 
žg  MDL 
Random pattern of modulation (unpredictable/irregular movement pattern) 
These suffixes operate in conjunction with Phase (see Sec. 5.3) to describe contexts involving recoil, spring motion, oscillative, cyclic, reflective or vibrative motion, using the following degrees:
Degree 1  not enough  
Degree 2  hardly at all  
Degree 3  to a small degree  
Degree 4  to a less than normal degree  
Degree 5  to the normal / standard / usual degree  
Degree 6  to a greater than normal degree  
Degree 7  to a large degree  
Degree 8  to a very large degree  
Degree 9  too much / overly 
g  FLS 
Degree of Fluctuation/Stability 
Degree 1  inherently and consistently unstable and random to a high degree  
Degree 2  highly variable/random fluctuation or instability  
Degree 3  moderately variable/random fluctuation or instability  
Degree 4  increasing fluctuation or destabilization in pattern  
Degree 5  tending toward fluctuations and periods of instability  
Degree 6  decreasing fluctuation or instability in pattern = increasing stability  
Degree 7  moderately stable and lacking in fluctuations  
Degree 8  complete lack of fluctuation or instability; highly stable  
Degree 9  inherently and consistently stable 
f  ICR 
Increase 
ft  DCR  Decrease 
pf  ICD  Increase then Decrease 
kf  DCI  Decrease then Increase 
qţ  IDR  Random/Varying Increases and Decreases 
Used with the following degrees, the above five suffixes operate to expand Phase into showing increases or decreases (or wavering) of intensity of an action during its duration.
Degree 1  so slowly as to seem immovable 
Degree 2  very slowly 
Degree 3  slowly 
Degree 4  somewhat slower than normal 
Degree 5  normal/usual/standard speed 
Degree 6  somewhat faster than normal 
Degree 7  fast/quickly 
Degree 8  very rapidly 
Degree 9  so rapidly as to be unable to follow 
fs  MVT 
Degree of Stillness/Movement 
Degree 1  unmovable – integrated  
Degree 2  unmovable due to mass  
Degree 3  not easily moved  
Degree 4  inclined to stillness  
Degree 5  holding still  
Degree 6  moving around slightly, stirring  
Degree 7  moving around in one place  
Degree 8  moving around, agitated  
Degree 9  highly agitated, unable to keep still 
x  SIZ 
Degree of Size 
Degree 1  too small  
Degree 2  very small/ very little/ miniscule/ tiny/ ittybitty;in a very small manner; barely/hardly  
Degree 3  small/little  
Degree 4  a little on the small size / undersized / petite  
Degree 5  a little on the large size / oversized / jumbo  
Degree 6  big/large; in a large manner  
Degree 7  very big/very large; in a very large manner  
Degree 8  enormous(ly) / huge(ly) / humoungous(ly) / gigantic(ally)  
Degree 9  too big / too large / too huge; in too large a manner 
xh  SCO 
Dynamic Change of Size 
Degree 1  smallest single manifestation of / particle of  
Degree 2  runaway shrinkage of / rapid disappearance or diminishment of  
Degree 3  solitary / only / sole / lone / unaccompanied; alone / by self / on his own / unaccompanied / solely  
Degree 4  decreasing / deescalating / shrinking  
Degree 5  compact/concentrated; in efficient or compact way [e.g., canyon → gorge]  
Degree 6  expanded/enhanced; in expanded or enhanced way [e.g., canyon → rift valley]  
Degree 7  growing, increasing, escalating  
Degree 8  runaway / runaway growth, increase or expansion of  
Degree 9  synergistic expansion e.g., hit (+ RCP valence) → fight 
ç  AFT 
Degree of Affect 
Degree 1  cute/darling / in a cute or darling manner  
Degree 2  too cute / schmaltzy / in a maudlin way  
Degree 3  kitschy / quaint(ly)  
Degree 4  dear, endearing(ly)  
Degree 5  lovely / elegant  
Degree 6  esteemed  
Degree 7  imperious / royal / most high / most excellent / revered  
Degree 8  too grand / too imperious  
Degree 9  great / grand; in a great / grand / grandiose manner 
č  QUA 
Degree of Quality, Effectiveness or Adequacy 
Degree 1  too poor(ly); too badly  
Degree 2  very bad(ly) / very poor(ly) / very inadequate(ly) / intolerable / intolerably / terrible / terribly  
Degree 3  bad / poor / inadequate; badly / poorly / inadequately / wanting / lacking  
Degree 4  notsogood / could be better; somewhat poor(ly) or bad(ly) / somewhat wanting or lacking / below average  
Degree 5  notsobad / average; could be worse; soso / somewhat well / OK, I guess / adequate(ly) / acceptably  
Degree 6  good/effective; well/effectively/ more than adequate / aboveaverage  
Degree 7  very good / very effective(ly) / very well  
Degree 8  excellent(ly) / superb(ly) / outstanding(ly)  
Degree 9  astounding(ly) / amazing(ly) great or well / unbelievably excellent / absolutely superb(ly) / unsurpassable(ly) 
c  UNQ 
Degree of Specialness or Uniqueness 
Degree 1  vulgar, trashy, too cheap / in a vulgar or trashy manner  
Degree 2  cheap, tasteless, gaudy, gauche / in a cheap, gaudy, gauche or tasteless manner  
Degree 3  run of the mill / unexceptional / average / commonplace / ordinary; in a commonplace or unexceptional manner  
Degree 4  somewhat ordinary / somewhat common(place)  
Degree 5  somewhat special / somewhat out of the ordinary / interesting(ly) / intriguing(ly) / eyecatching / appealing(ly)  
Degree 6  special; epecially  
Degree 7  extraordinary / highly unusual; extraordinarily  
Degree 8  (one and) only/unique; in the only way / uniquely / unparallelled  
Degree 9  marvelous / wonderful / wondrous / awesome / aweinspiring 
rň  IPT 
Degree of Importance/Impact/Signficance 
Degree 1  utterly unimportant, insignficant, unnecessary, irrelevant  
Degree 2  hardly necessary, seemingly unimportant, essentially insignificant, essentially irrelevant  
Degree 3  thirdstring / no remaining alternative but X  
Degree 4  backup / understudy / secondstring  
Degree 5  secondary  
Degree 6  fairly significant, somewhat important  
Degree 7  importan t/ significant / considerable  
Degree 8  primary / foremost / very significant  
Degree 9  Indispensable/crucial/critical 
k^{h}  CNQ 
Degree of Consequentiality, Finality or Irrevocability 
Degree 1  inconsequential/sham/having no effect; like it didn’t even happen/with no effect  
Degree 2  relatively inconsequential / having little effect / easily reversible or undone / to little effect / minor / to minor degree  
Degree 3  somewhat inconsequential/having only some effect/reparable/reversible/to some effect / somewhat minor  
Degree 4  not so minor / somwhat significant degree / reversible with effort / having a somewhat significant impact or effect  
Degree 5  consequential / having a fair effect / reversible only with concerted effort / to good effect  
Degree 6  Overall / signifcant degree of; all in all / for the most part/to great effect / on the whole  
Degree 7  virtually total/near total; nearly for good/almost completely  
Degree 8  utter / complete / total; altogether / completely / for good / utterly / irrevocably for all intents and purposes  
Degree 9  for all time / forever / finally 
q  NTR 
Degree of Notoriety, Acceptance, Respect, Honor 
Degree 1  pariahlike / ostracized; in an alienating or selfostracizing manner  
Degree 2  infamous; infamously  
Degree 3  frownedupon / disapproved ; in a manner guaranteed to arouse disapproval  
Degree 4  tolerated; in a tolerated manner  
Degree 5  common / customary / expected / accepted; in an common, customary, expected, or accepted manner  
Degree 6  notorious(ly)  
Degree 7  wellknown / wellliked / well thought of; in a totally appropriate way / in a manner befitting a gentleman or lady  
Degree 8  respected / honored; respectfully / honorably  
Degree 9  highly praised / highly honored / highly esteemed / highly respected / most excellent / most honorable 
rg  BEH 
Degree of Subjective Effect or Behavioral Appropriateness 
Degree 1  grotesque, gross, nauseating, sickening  
Degree 2  repugnant, revolting, repulsive  
Degree 3  despicable, deplorable, detestable  
Degree 4  lurid, spectacleinducing  
Degree 5  offensive, illmannered, in poor taste  
Degree 6  lewd  
Degree 7  spectacular, showy, largerthanlife  
Degree 8  wellmannered, polite  
Degree 9  classy, dignified, in good taste 
xht  APR 
Degree of Contextual Appropriateness 
Degree 1  contemptable(ly) / utterly inappropriate(ly)  
Degree 2  scandalous(ly) / trashy(ly) / inappropriate(ly)  
Degree 3  illmannered / boorish(ly) / improper(ly) / tasteless(ly)  
Degree 4  eyebrowraising / questionable(ly)  
Degree 5  somewhat improper(ly) / unorthodox(ically)  
Degree 6  acceptable(ly) / adequate(ly)  
Degree 7  appropriate(ly) / proper(ly) / correct(ly)  
Degree 8  utterly appropriate(ly), very proper(ly); strictly correct(ly)  
Degree 9  stuffy / orthodox / oldfashioned; utterly predictable(ly) 
tļ  HRC 
Position on Social, Occupational, or (Para) Military Hierarchy 
Degree 1  bottom rung / the “dregs”  
Degree 2  rank & file  
Degree 3  lower echeleon  
Degree 4  lowermid  
Degree 5  midlevel  
Degree 6  upper mid  
Degree 7  upper echeleon  
Degree 8  senior  
Degree 9  head / chief / top / executive 
This suffix, for example, would be used to distinguish the names of the various ranks within a military or paramilitary organization such as private, corporal, sergeant, lieutenant, etc. all the way up to general and supreme commander.
ż  FRM 
Degree of Formality 
Degree 1  too casual / overly casual  
Degree 2  very casual  
Degree 3  casual  
Degree 4  somewhat casual  
Degree 5  neither casual nor formal  
Degree 6  somewhat formal  
Degree 7  formal  
Degree 8  very formal  
Degree 9  too formal / overly formal 
j  TYP 
Degree of Typicalness 
Degree 1  unique / neverbeforeseen / one of a kind / shocking  
Degree 2  original / avantegarde; surprising(ly) / innovative(ly)  
Degree 3  atypical(ly) / unusual(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat atypical(ly) or unusual(ly)  
Degree 5  garden variety / runofthemill / typical(ly)  
Degree 6  expected / common; in a commonplace manner  
Degree 7  disappointingly typical; very typically  
Degree 8  unoriginal / mundane; in an uninspired way  
Degree 9  stereotyped / stereotypical(ly) 
ňx  PTY 
Degree of Prototypicalness 
Degree 1  very dissimilar to prototype, very atypical member, closer to members of different set  
Degree 2  dissimilar to prototype, atypical member  
Degree 3  having noticeable dissimilarities from prototype  
Degree 4  somewhat dissimilar to prototype  
Degree 5  having unknown degree of closeness or similarity to prototype  
Degree 6  adequately similar to prototype  
Degree 7  as close to prototype as is typically found  
Degree 8  as close to prototype as possible  
Degree 9  prototype/archetype/model 
mž / žm  ITG 
Degree of Intelligence Manifested 
Degree 1  dumb / stupid / assinine; idiotic(ally) / moronic(ally)  
Degree 2  foolhearty / foolish(ly)  
Degree 3  illconceived(ly) / (in a) poorly thought out (way)  
Degree 4  naïve(ly) / simplistic(ally)  
Degree 5  wellintentioned but illconceived / reckless(ly); risky  
Degree 6  wellreasoned / intelligent(ly)  
Degree 7  innovative(ly) / daring [based on analysis and judgement]  
Degree 8  ingenious / brilliant  
Degree 9  wise(ly); [V2 = ‘philosophical(ly)] 
ļ  MDN 
Degree of Age or Modernity 
Degree 1  prehistoric / proto  
Degree 2  ancient  
Degree 3  old (first) / archaic  
Degree 4  classic(al)  
Degree 5  oldfashioned; in the oldfashioned way  
Degree 6  “yesteryear”; in the era just passed; in the previous zeitgeist  
Degree 7  modern, contemporary, presentday  
Degree 8  innovative / trailblazing; innovatively, trailblazingly, cuttingedge  
Degree 9  avantgarde 
r  NA1 
Negation/affirmation of all morphological components 
l  NA2 
Negation/affirmation of stem + affixes but not adjunct information 
ř  NA3 
Negation/affirmation of all morphological components except Modality 
řř  NA4 
Negation/affirmation of all but aspectual or Modality information 
The above four suffixes are used to affirm or negate a formative. Because much of the information associated with an Ithkuil formative is carried in adjuncts, the above suffixes are used to indicate exactly which morphosemantic information is being affirmed or negated. For example, in English the sentences I don’t want to stop eating, I want to not stop eating, and I want to stop not eating mean different things. The above four suffixes are used with the following degrees.
Degree 1  on the contrary…most cerainly does NOT/is NOT [absolute negation]; no X whatsoever; absolutely not = emphatic negation/denial  
Degree 2  on the contrary…does NOT or is NOT [absolute negation contrary to expectation]  
Degree 3  on the contrary…does NOT or is NOT [relative negation contrary to expectation]  
Degree 4  no; not [absolute negation] = e.g., I will not win the race (because I’m not in the race)  
Degree 5  no; not [relative negation] = e.g., I will not win the race (although I am in the race)  
Degree 6  almost / near(ly)  
Degree 7  hardly / barely  
Degree 8  …does (too) / is (too) [= simple affirmation contrary to expectation]  
Degree 9  …is indeed / does indeed / most certainly is / most certainly does [emphatic affirmation] 
rr  PLV 
Polarity / Logical valence values 
Degree 1  false/negative [bivalent polarity or logic]  
Degree 2  false/negative [trivalent polarity or logic]  
Degree 3  superpositional – neither true/positive nor false/negative  
Degree 4  unknown polarity or logical state/value [trivalent polarity or logic]  
Degree 5  neutral [trivalent polarity or logic]  
Degree 6  unknown polarity or logical state/value [bivalent polarity or logic]  
Degree 7  superpositional – both true/positive and false/negative  
Degree 8  true/positive [trivalent polarity or logic]  
Degree 9  true/positive [bivalent polarity or logic] 
ţ  DEV 
Degree of Development 
Degree 1  reversal or undoing of process = ‘un’ / ‘de’ / ‘dis’  
Degree 2  reversal/undoing of process in large chunks = ‘un’ / ‘de’ / ‘dis’  
Degree 3  reversal little by little / a little at a time = entropic change in / slowly falling apart / unravelling  
Degree 4  moribund / stagnant; in a moribund or stagnant manner  
Degree 5  wellmaintained / wellkept / “healthy”; keep X going / maintain Xing  
Degree 6  one by one / one at a time / one after another  
Degree 7  little by little / a little at a time / bit by bit / a piece at a time  
Degree 8  by leaps and bounds / in large amounts at a time  
Degree 9  complete achievement now irreversible / set in stone 
pt  REA 
Degree of Genuineness or Veracity 
Degree 1  real / actual / true / genuine; truly, genuinely, really, actually, indeed [affirmation contrary to suggestion otherwise]  
Degree 2  real / actual / true / genuine; truly, genuinely, really, actually, indeed  
Degree 3  apparent / seeming / looks like a; apparently / appears to have / seems to have  
Degree 4  suspiciouslooking / ”fishy” seeming; presumably /allegedly / gives the appearance of having  
Degree 5  ersatz / facsimile; as an equivalent to  
Degree 6  substitute / replacement / proxy / fillin / placeholder; as a substitue or proxy for  
Degree 7  fake / pretend / mock; pretend to, fake Xing  
Degree 8  imaginary / unreal / madeup ; imagine Xing, not really Xing  
Degree 9  imaginary / unreal / madeup ; imagine Xing, not really Xing [contrary to suggestion otherwise] 
rk / kr  SCS 
Degree of Success versus Failure 
Degree 1  total failure in; completely fail to  
Degree 2  failed, wouldbe; unsuccessfully, fail to  
Degree 3  = INEFFECTUAL or INCOMPLETIVE version (see Sec. 5.8)  
Degree 4  certain to be a failed / certain to fail in  
Degree 5  marginally successful(ly) / barely, hardly [in terms of adequacy or success]  
Degree 6  certain to be a successful ; certain to succeed in  
Degree 7  = POSITIVE or EFFECTIVE version (see Sec. 5.8)  
Degree 8  successful(ly completed); successfully  
Degree 9  overwhelmingly successful(ly) 
v  CAP 
Degree of Potential or Capability 
Degree 1  utterly incapable / completely lacking in all necessary abilities or capacities  
Degree 2  underqualified; almost totally lacking in necessary abilities or capacities  
Degree 3  lacking in certain key capabilities; mostly inadequate to task  
Degree 4  possible but less than likely due to underdeveloped capabilities  
Degree 5  unknown if capable or not  
Degree 6  somewhat capable / has possible potential to perform  
Degree 7  sufficiently capable / adequate potential to perform  
Degree 8  fully capable; well within abilities  
Degree 9  overly qualified; more capable than necessary or required 
çq  PRB 
Degree of Probability or Likelihood 
Degree 1  impossible / hopeless / lost cause  
Degree 2  almost no chance of / virtually impossible  
Degree 3  highly unlikely  
Degree 4  unlikely / improbable(ly)  
Degree 5  possible; possibly  
Degree 6  hopeful(ly)  
Degree 7  probable; probably  
Degree 8  highly probable / highly likely / certain to be a. . . certain to  
Degree 9  forgone conclusion that / in the can / done deal 
nţ / ţn  STR 
Degree of Physical Strength Possible or Used 
Degree 1  barely / hardly / very weak(ly)  
Degree 2  weak(ly) / to small degree  
Degree 3  soft(ly) / guarded(ly)  
Degree 4  measured(ly)  
Degree 5  somewhat strong(ly) / somewhat powerful(ly)  
Degree 6  adequately strong; with adequate strength  
Degree 7  strong(ly) / powerful(ly)  
Degree 8  very strong(ly) / very powerful(ly)  
Degree 9  with maximum power 
kç  FRC 
Degree of Physical Force Exerted 
Degree 1  too light(ly) / too soft(ly) / too delicate(ly)  
Degree 2  light as a feather/ baby soft; extremely delicately or lightly or softly  
Degree 3  light/soft/hardly a; softly / lightly / delicately / gingerly  
Degree 4  somewhat on the light or soft side; somewhat softly / lightly / delicately / gingerly  
Degree 5  neither soft(ly) nor forceful(ly); with the right touch  
Degree 6  somewhat violent(ly) / somewhat forceful(ly)  
Degree 7  violent/forceful / rough; violently / with force / roughly  
Degree 8  very violent(ly) / very forceful(ly) / very rough(ly)  
Degree 9  too violent(ly) / too forceful(ly) / too rough(ly) 
sk  ITY 
Degree of Speed (i.e., Intensity of Movement or Change) 
Degree 1  too slow(ly)  
Degree 2  very slow(ly)  
Degree 3  slow(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat slow(ly)  
Degree 5  at just the right speed or intensity  
Degree 6  somewhat fast / somewhat quick(ly) / somewhat rapid(ly)  
Degree 7  fast / quick(ly) / rapid(ly); at fast pace  
Degree 8  very fast / very quick(ly) / very rapid(ly); at fast pace  
Degree 9  too fast / too quick(ly) / too rapid(ly); at fast pace 
st  SPD 
Degree of Speed (i.e., Velocity = Distance Over Time) 
Degree 1  too slow(ly)  
Degree 2  very slow(ly)  
Degree 3  slow(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat slow(ly)  
Degree 5  at just the right speed  
Degree 6  somewhat fast / somewhat quick(ly) / somewhat rapid(ly)  
Degree 7  fast / quick(ly) / rapid(ly); at fast pace  
Degree 8  very fast / very quick(ly) / very rapid(ly)/; at fast pace  
Degree 9  too fast / too quick(ly) / too rapid(ly); at fast pace 
lt / tl  CFD 
Degree of Forthrightness, Confidence or Humility 
Degree 1  too meek(ly) / too submissive(ly) / too obedient(ly) / too docile(ly) 

Degree 2  very meek(ly) / very submissive(ly) / very obedient(ly) / very docile(ly)  
Degree 3  meek(ly) / submissive(ly) / obedient(ly) / docile(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat meek(ly) / somewhat submissive(ly) / somewhat obedient(ly) / somewhat docile(ly)  
Degree 5  properly humble / properly forthright ; with proper degree of humility or forthrightness  
Degree 6  somewhat confident(ly) / somewhat strong(ly) / somewhat definite(ly) / somewhat definitive(ly) or authoritative(ly)  
Degree 7  confident(ly) /strong(ly) / definite(ly)/ definitive(ly) / authoritative(ly)  
Degree 8  very confident(ly) / very strong(ly) / very definite(ly) / very definitive(ly) / very authoritative(ly)  
Degree 9  overconfident(ly) / too strong(ly) / too definite(ly) / too definitive(ly) / too authoritative(ly) 
dh  EFI 
Degree of Efficiency or Efficacy 
Degree 1  destructively wasteful / disastrous(ly) / accomplishing the opposite of intention / making things worse  
Degree 2  very wasteful / accomplishing nothing / making a mess of it  
Degree 3  wasteful / accomplishing little  
Degree 4  somewhat wasteful / accomplishing somewhat less than expected  
Degree 5  adequate(ly) [in terms of efficiency]  
Degree 6  rather efficient(ly) / fairly efficient(ly) / accomplishing somewhat more than expected  
Degree 7  efficient(ly) / with little or no waste(d effort)  
Degree 8  extremely efficient(ly) / with no waste(d effort) whatsoever  
Degree 9  a synergy of… / sum beyond total of parts / a synergistic composite of ; to X synergistically 
šq  ERR 
Degree of Correctness versus Error 
Degree 1  totally wrong / totally mis or mal; totally in error / erroneous(ly) / incorrect(ly)  
Degree 2  wrong/incorrect(ly) / mis / mal ; in error / erroneous(ly) / incorrect(ly)  
Degree 3  fairly wrong / fairly incorrect(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat wrong / more wrong than right  
Degree 5  soso; barely adequate(ly) / barely correct(ly)  
Degree 6  somewhat right / more right than wrong  
Degree 7  fairly right / fairly correct(ly)  
Degree 8  right / correctly  
Degree 9  totally right / totally correct(ly) / totally wellX’d 
p^{h}  MAT 
Degree of Maturation 
Degree 1  undeveloped / immature(ly) / seed / embryo  
Degree 2  underdeveloped / newborn [stage, not age] / seedling / baby  
Degree 3  growing / budding / youthful / young  
Degree 4  maturing / developing / getting stronger or bigger or more complex or sophisticated  
Degree 5  fully developed / fully mature(d) / robust / ripe  
Degree 6  overly developed / overripe / showing signs of wear and tear / stressed / under stress / fatigued  
Degree 7  declining/fading; trail off/fade / getting softer or weaker / faded / decrepit / hasbeen / past one’s prime  
Degree 8  disintegrating / utterly deteriorated / beyond repair or rehabilitation / irreparable / dying  
Degree 9  dead / defunct / disintegrated 
ňz  SBT 
Degree of Subtlety 
Degree 1  too subtle(ly)  
Degree 2  very subtle(ly)  
Degree 3  subtle(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat subtle(ly)  
Degree 5  somewhat unsubtle(ly)  
Degree 6  unsubtle(ly) / lumbering(ly) rather obvious/ fairly blatant / belabored ; belabor / lumber along Xing  
Degree 7  obvious(ly) / blatant(ly) / exaggerated(ly)  
Degree 8  very obvious(ly) / very blatant(ly)  
Degree 9  overthetop / inyourface / to obvious(ly) / too blatant(ly) 
kš  DRC 
Degree of Directness 
Degree 1  too indirect(ly)  
Degree 2  very indirect(ly)  
Degree 3  indirect(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat indirect(ly)  
Degree 5  somewhat direct(ly)  
Degree 6  fairly direct(ly) / rather direct(ly)  
Degree 7  direct(ly) / straightforward  
Degree 8  very direct(ly) / very straightforward  
Degree 9  too direct(ly) / painfully straightforward 
mš / šm  SUD 
Degree of Suddenness 
Degree 1  too slow(ly) in happening, too long in Xing, overdue, delayed  
Degree 2  very slow(ly) in happening or developing  
Degree 3  slow(ly) ; long in developing or happening  
Degree 4  somewhat slow(ly) ; somewhat long in developing or happening  
Degree 5  taking just the right amount of time to develop or occur  
Degree 6  somewhat immediate / somewhat sudden; somewhat imediately / somewhat suddenly  
Degree 7  immediate / sudden; imediately / suddenly  
Degree 8  very immediate / very sudden; very imediately / very suddenly  
Degree 9  too immediate / too sudden; too imediately / too suddenly 
pç  PCN 
Degree of Care, Precision or Scrutiny 
Degree 1  utterly sloppy(ily) / totally careless(ly)  
Degree 2  very sloppy(ily) / very careless(ly)  
Degree 3  sloppy(ily) / careless(ly) / with poor attention to detail  
Degree 4  somewhat sloppy(ily) / somewhat careless(ly)  
Degree 5  less than careful(ly) / with only some degree of care  
Degree 6  somewhat careful(ly) / fairly precise(ly)  
Degree 7  precise(ly) / careful(ly) / detailed  
Degree 8  extremely precise(ly) / with great care or precision or scrutiny / meticulous(ly)  
Degree 9  overly precise(ly) / ‘nitpicky’ / with too much scrutiny / overly meticulous(ly) 
c^{h}  CNC 
Degree of Concern or Consideration 
Degree 1  …the hell…! / what the hell . . . / . . . who cares  
Degree 2  selfcentered(ly) / without thought or concern for others  
Degree 3  at the very least / at the least level of concern required  
Degree 4  without concern / indifferent(ly) / without consideration / unconcerned(ly) / thoughtless(ly)  
Degree 5  reluctant(ly)  
Degree 6  at best / with the most concern one can muster  
Degree 7  concerned(ly) / with concern / with consideration for others  
Degree 8  very concerned(ly) / highly concerned(ly) / with great concern or consideration for others  
Degree 9  overly concerned(ly) / worrisome(ly) / with too much concern or consideration for others / altruistically 
lk / kl  SPH 
Degree of Sophistication 
Degree 1  too crude(ly) / too primitive(ly)  
Degree 2  very crude(ly) / very primitive(ly)  
Degree 3  crude(ly) / primitive(ly)  
Degree 4  somewhat crude(ly) / somewhat primitive(ly)  
Degree 5  with expected/normal degree or level of sophistication  
Degree 6  somewhat sophisticated or refined  
Degree 7  sophisticated or refined  
Degree 8  very sophisticated or refined  
Degree 9  too sophisticated or refined 
çt  CVT 
Degree of Covertness versus Overtness 
Degree 1  too secretive(ly) / overly covert(ly)  
Degree 2  very secretive(ly) / highly covert(ly) / hidden / well behind the scenes  
Degree 3  secretive(ly) / covert(ly) / behind the scenes / between the lines / under the table / “backroom”  
Degree 4  somewhat secretive(ly) / somewhat covert(ly)  
Degree 5  not too secretive(ly) / not so open(ly)  
Degree 6  somewhat open(ly) / somewhat “up front”  
Degree 7  open(ly) / overt(ly) / “up front” / out in the open / honest / forthcoming(ly)  
Degree 8  very open(ly) / very overt(ly) / very “up front” / flaunting(ly) / brutally honest  
Degree 9  too open(ly) / too overt(ly) / overly flaunting(ly) / vulgar(ly) 
rt / tr  EFT 
Degree of Effort 
Degree 1  too difficult / overly difficult  
Degree 2  very difficult / so difficult  
Degree 3  strained / difficult; strain to / with difficulty / struggle to / to work at Xing / to X hard  
Degree 4  somewhat difficult / not that easy  
Degree 5  neither easy nor difficult  
Degree 6  somewhat easy; not so difficult  
Degree 7  easy / certain / unhindered / with ease / without resistance / effortlessly  
Degree 8  very easy / so easy  
Degree 9  too easy / overly easy 
ňž  DSG 
Degree of Design or Purposefulness 
Degree 1  purposeless(ly) /random(ly) / utterly unorganized / chaotic(ally)  
Degree 2  haphazard(ly) / without plan or guidance/ disorganized(ly) / poorly planned  
Degree 3  fairly haphazard(ly) / not wellplanned / not wellorganized  
Degree 4  somewhat haphazard(ly) / somewhat disorganized  
Degree 5  slightly disorganized / less than wellplanned  
Degree 6  somewhat organized / somewhat wellplanned  
Degree 7  organized(ly) / purposeful(ly) / wellplanned  
Degree 8  very organized / very structured  
Degree 9  too organized / overly structured / “anal(ly)” 
sq  DCS 
Degree of Decisiveness, Commitment or Emphasis 
Degree 1  indecisive / meandering; indecisively / first one way then another  
Degree 2  wishy washy / flaky  
Degree 3  some sort of / some kind of / sort of (like) / ”kind of”; in a way / halfway / does and doesn’t  
Degree 4  apparent(ly); seeming(ly)  
Degree 5  mere(ly) / only (a); merely / only  
Degree 6  deliberate / decisive; deliberately / decisively / purposefully  
Degree 7  a real / certainly a ; really / certainly [emphasis, not genuineness or veracity]  
Degree 8  the (one); in the only way that counts  
Degree 9  what (a) ...!; how . . .! ; Boy! Did (does) X ever … 
št  CTN 
Degree of Contrariness to Expectation(s) or Shift in Subject 
Degree 1  but X would… / if things were otherwise X WOULD… / on the contrary, X WOULD [affirmation of hypothetical contrary to statement/suggestion otherwise  
Degree 2  but / X DOES/IS . . . / on the contrary … [affirmation of fact contrary to suggestion or statement otherwise]  
Degree 3  like it or not…/ well, as much as we didn’t want to think it would happen...  
Degree 4  against expectation or belief ‘… after all’ ‘well, what do you know…X!’  
Degree 5  a genuine / real / true ; really do, [contrary to expectation]  
Degree 6  as a matter of fact  
Degree 7  ‘at least/at any rate’  
Degree 8  ‘by the way/ just to mention’  
Degree 9  not to change the subject but…/ sorry to change the subject, but…/ I don’t mean to change the subject, but… 
çk  PHY 
Degree of Physical Control 
Degree 1  uncontrolled/helpless(ly) ; without control/ out of control  
Degree 2  almost completely out of control / almost totally helpless  
Degree 3  losing control / losing the ability to…  
Degree 4  insufficiently trained in...  
Degree 5  amateur(ishly) / superficially able to…  
Degree 6  learn(ing) to… / begin(ning) to be able to…  
Degree 7  w/ growing proficiency or expertise (in)  
Degree 8  proficient(ly)  
Degree 9  in full control / expert(ly) 
Many of these correspond to the modality suffixes used in valence/modality adjuncts (see Chapter 6). The nine degrees associated with each suffix allow a speaker control over the extent to which the modality category should apply to the utterance. These suffix forms function, then, as an alternative to adjunct forms for greater nuance in the applicability of the modality category and to apply them to nouns. The nine degrees of each suffix are as follows:
Degree 1  not at all  
Degree 2  to too little a degree; to an insufficient degree  
Degree 3  hardly at all  
Degree 4  to a small degree  
Degree 5  to a fair degree/somewhat  
Degree 6  fairly much/more so than not  
Degree 7  very much so / decidedly so / to a great degree  
Degree 8  too much so / to too great a degree  
Degree 9  to the exclusion of all else / without consideration for anything else 
The specific modality suffixes are as follows:
řb  MD01  resigned to 
řd  MD02  devoted; committed to / devoted to 
řč  MD03  desired / soughtafter; want to 
řţ  MD04  attempted, attempt at a …; try to, attempt to 
řç  MD05  capable, able; can / able to / capable of 
řc  MD06  knowledgeable; can = know how to / familiar with 
řf  MD07  mandatory; must / have to 
řxh  MD08  required; should / be to 
řk  MD09  expected; be supposed to 
nd  MD10  intended; mean to / intend to / shall 
řg  MD11  chosen, selected; choose to / elect to 
řq  MD12  …on impulse; feel like Xing 
řż  MD13  promised; promise to 
řj  MD14  wellliked; like (to) 
řtļ  MD15  feared; fear (to) 
řs  MD16  willing; willing to 
řš  MD17  prepared / ready; prepared to/ready to 
řv  MD18  necessary / needed; need to 
řň  MD19  Daring; dare to 
řdh  MD20  decidedupon; decide to 
řz  MD21  offered/offer of; offer to 
řž  MD22  aided / assisted; help to / aid in Xing 
řn  MD23  not unexpected; be prone to / be apt to / tend to 
rm  MD24  agreedupon; agree to 
řl  MD25  responsible for/in charge of 
řp  MD26  remember to 
md  MD27  feel a need to / feel one should / feel one must / feel driven to 
qf  MD28  to guess or think [that]… 
tf  MD29  available; available to/for 
mv  MD30  potential; can = have potential to 
řt  MD31  permitted; can = permitted to 
ňg  MD32  hopedfor; hope/wish to 
mf  MD33  X by inclination; be inclined to 
n  AGC 
Degree of Agency 
Degree 1  [AGENT] = one who forces/causes  
Degree 2  [ENABLER] = one who enables to happen  
Degree 3  [INFLUENCE] = one who persuades/influences  
Degree 4  ENABLER BY PERMISSION] = one who permits/allows/lets happen  
Degree 5  [PATIENT] = one who does/is made to do  
Degree 6  [EXPERIENCER] = one who undergoes/experiences  
Degree 7  [INSTRUMENT] = instrument which causes  
Degree 8  [STIMULUS] = one whose status is as stimulus of affective experience  
Degree 9  [SOURCE] = that which gives rise to, provides underlying reason for, source of 
This suffix and the following identify a formative as filling a specific semantic role corresponding in many cases to the semantic roles discussed in Sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2. In several instances, these suffixes would translate the English “agentive” suffixes er, or or.
m  ROL 
Role 
Degree 1  that which contains or functions as the enclosure / container / house / shelter of or for  
Degree 2  that which results from  
Degree 3  [RECIPIENT] = one who receives / has / "ee"  
Degree 4  one who is / acts as / functions as  
Degree 5  one who is characterized by / described by...  
Degree 6  one who is similar to/functions or acts similarly to  
Degree 7  one whose responsibility is / who is responsible for / runs the business of (operationally speaking)  
Degree 8  one who constructs / makes / creates  
Degree 9  one who manages / oversees / supervises / coordinates / runs the business of (managerially speaking) 
pš  UTE 
Utilitative or Enabling Means 
Degree 1  tool/device/apparatus specifically designed for Xing 

Degree 2  medium by/through which one X’s  
Degree 3  conduitlike tool/apparatus for Xing  
Degree 4  natural/standard body part for Xing  
Degree 5  object employed circumstantially as implement for Xing  
Degree 6  covering/protective element employed to allow/permit Xing  
Degree 7  enabling element/device/apparatus to allow/foster Xing  
Degree 8  environment/situaton/circumstances/setting which allows/fosters Xing  
Degree 9  FORCE which causes/permits Xing 
ž  CNS 
Degree of Consent 
Degree 1  deliberately without consent of knowledge  
Degree 2  without consent or knowledge as a precaution or “for their own good”  
Degree 3  without consent or knowledge due to circumstances  
Degree 4  with their knowledge but w/o consent; against their will  
Degree 5  consent obtained under pressure, threat, coercion  
Degree 6  w/ reluctant consent  
Degree 7  willingly; with full consent  
Degree 8  with enthusiastic approval and support  
Degree 9  at their request 
t  MEC 
Type of Mechanical Instrumentality = ‘by means of’ 
Degree 1  the body’s natural method of doing so (e.g., on foot, by hand, etc.)  
Degree 2  a manually manipulated generic tool or implement  
Degree 3  a specialized tool for that specific purpose or activity  
Degree 4  a machine or via mechanical means or process  
Degree 5  a virtual, electronic means or via engineering  
Degree 6  mental power, force of will, concentration  
Degree 7  a redirection or collation of energy specially applied  
Degree 8  a collective pooling of manual labor resources  
Degree 9  a collective pooling of electronic/mechanical/engineering resources 
rx / xr  BOD 
Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’ 
Degree 1  a hand 

Degree 2  an arm  
Degree 3  a foot  
Degree 4  a leg  
Degree 5  one’s eyes  
Degree 6  both legs  
Degree 7  both feet  
Degree 8  both arms  
Degree 9  both hands 
mp  DBI 
Additional Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’ 
Degree 1  a finger 

Degree 2  a thumb  
Degree 3  a knee  
Degree 4  one’s head  
Degree 5  one’s teeth  
Degree 6  one’s lips  
Degree 7  one’s tongue  
Degree 8  one’s elbow  
Degree 9  one’s fingers 
ld / dl  SOC 
Type of Social Instrumentality = ‘by means of’ 
Degree 1  via lackeys, grunt labor, gofors or henchmen  
Degree 2  by coercion, threat, blackmail  
Degree 3  “fronts”, or disguised gobetweens  
Degree 4  indirectly through actions of others (unbeknownst to them)  
Degree 5  indirectly through actions of others (with their knowledge)  
Degree 6  by leveraging existing resources / personnel (deploying existing methods in a new application)  
Degree 7  via a proxy or proxies  
Degree 8  hired help or staff  
Degree 9  by delegation of task to experts 
ňq  OAU 
Origin/Association/Utilization 
Degree 1  entity/thing/phenomenon that hails from X  
Degree 2  entity/thing/phenomenon associated with X  
Degree 3  entity/thing/phenomenon that utilizes X  
Degree 4  person that hails from X  
Degree 5  person associated with X  
Degree 6  person that utilizes X  
Degree 7  idea/practice/custom that hails from X  
Degree 8  idea/practice/custom associated with X  
Degree 9  idea/practice/custom that utilizes X 
ndh  AUT 
Authorization 
Degree 1  by being granted a personal privilege / via the generosity or largess of another or others  
Degree 2  by inalienable human right / by natural right  
Degree 3  by right of a legal claim / by right of statute or law  
Degree 4  by right of custom or social convention / by right of general agreement or common knowledge  
Degree 5  by granting of a personal favor or claim on a favor owed  
Degree 6  by making of a threat or via a quidproquo agreement  
Degree 7  by one's own formal authority, rank, or formal position  
Degree 8  by authority of one's social position, class, or position in informal or subjective hierarchy  
Degree 9  as authorized by a governing entity or formal collective authority 
šš  RSN 
Reason for an Emotional State or Motivation for an Action 
Degree 1  for evil or perverse reasons  
Degree 2  for foolish or naïve reason  
Degree 3  due to deception by another  
Degree 4  due to faulty information provided by another [no deception intended]  
Degree 5  due to or based on faulty perception or misinterpretation of information or evidence  
Degree 6  despite negative circumstances or reasons not to  
Degree 7  for no reason  
Degree 8  for appropriate reasons / for good reason  
Degree 9  for virtuous, healthy reasons 
ps  MTA 
Additional Motivation for an Action or State 
Degree 1  in anger  
Degree 2  in repugnance/revulsion  
Degree 3  in irritation  
Degree 4  in defense/for protection  
Degree 5  in fear  
Degree 6  out of curiosity/to see what happens  
Degree 7  to provoke/elicit reaction  
Degree 8  to entice  
Degree 9  to show appreciation 
ňt  XPT 
Expectation of Outcome 
Degree 1  shockingly unexpected; without precedent or rumour  
Degree 2  surprise X / unexpected X; completely by surprise/ completely unexpected(ly)  
Degree 3  manage to X despite inadequacy of preparation or effort  
Degree 4  manage to X despite misguided or misdirected preparation or effort  
Degree 5  managed to X despite hindrance(s) or obstacles; hardwon  
Degree 6  manage to X due to hindrances or obstacles being overestimated; easier than thought to be  
Degree 7  manage to X due to excellent preparation / planning / execution  
Degree 8  completely as expected / totally as anticipated / as predicted  
Degree 9  pat; outcome preordained or predetermined 
sp  DLB 
Degree of Deliberateness/Agency 
Degree 1  accidental(ly) / inadvertent(ly) and unaware of consequences  
Degree 2  unintended / unintentional(ly) / without meaning to and unaware of consequences  
Degree 3  accidental(ly) / inadvertent(ly) but now aware of consequences  
Degree 4  unintended / unintentional(ly) / without meaning to but now aware of consequences  
Degree 5  unforseeable / unpredictable; unforeseeably / unpredictably  
Degree 6  without realizing or considering potential consequences  
Degree 7  thinking one can get away without reaping consequences / furtive(ly)  
Degree 8  realizing potential risks or consequences / cognizant of potential risks or consequences  
Degree 9  intentional(ly) / deliberate(ly) / on purpose / by choice; choose to 
mz / zm  MOT 
Degree of SelfConscious Deliberation or Motivation 
Degree 1  affected, ostentatious; affectedly/ostentatiously  
Degree 2  selfconscious(ly)  
Degree 3  guilty / guiltily  
Degree 4  halfhearted(ly)  
Degree 5  against better judgement / can’t help but / can’t help it  
Degree 6  ingrained, by upbringing  
Degree 7  learned / habitual; by habit / trained to  
Degree 8  natural(ly) / unselfconscious(ly)  
Degree 9  autonomic / unaware, automatic 
ls / sl  ENB 
Degree of Enablement 
Degree 1  by inadvertent gesture/word/sign taken as order or permission  
Degree 2  by granting of permission  
Degree 3  by cajoling or persuasion  
Degree 4  by direct request or imploring  
Degree 5  by direct order based on one’s real or perceived authority  
Degree 6  by inadvertent removal of hindrance  
Degree 7  by inadvertent action that initiates a chain of events  
Degree 8  by deliberate removal of hindrance  
Degree 9  by deliberate action that initiates a chain of events 
ms / sm  AGN 
Degree of Agency, Intent or Effectiveness 
Degree 1  with the anticipated max. resulting effect possible  
Degree 2  with the anticipated resulting effect to a high degree  
Degree 3  with the anticipated resulting effect to a moderate degree  
Degree 4  with the anticipated resulting effect but only to a marginal, superficial or baredly noticable degree  
Degree 5  with no noticeable effect or resulting change  
Degree 6  with only marginal, superficial, or barely noticeable effect or resulting change unanticipated  
Degree 7  with moderate effect or resulting change — unanticipated  
Degree 8  with the resulting effect to a high degree — unanticipated  
Degree 9  with the max. resulting effect possible — unanticipated 
rz / zr  IMP 
Degree of Impact on Patient/Target or Enablement of Outcome 
Degree 1  target can do nothing  utterly inevitable  
Degree 2  target chooses to do nothing  resigned to fate  
Degree 3  target tries to prevent/avoid but fails  
Degree 4  target tries to prevent/avoid and does so partially or mitigates impact somewhat  
Degree 5  target tries to prevent/avoid and succeeds  
Degree 6  target helps/enables outcome inadvertently  
Degree 7  target helps/enables outcome against own interest (i.e., without thinking)  
Degree 8  target helps/enables outcome intentionally despite negative consequences  
Degree 9  target helps/enables outcome intentionally for own benefit 
t’  TPF 
Topic, Frame and Focus 
Degree 1  [sentence topic]  
Degree 2  [end of frame]  
Degree 3  [head of relative clause]  
Degree 4  [sentence topic + head of relative clause]  
Degree 5  [end of frame + head of relative clause]  
Degree 6  [sentence topic + end of frame]  
Degree 7  [sentence focus + end of frame + head of rel. clause]  
Degree 8  [sentence focus]  
Degree 9  [sentence focus + end of frame] 
The various functions of the above suffix are explained in Sec. 5.4 on Frames, and Sec. 9.1 on Topic and Focus.
rm / mr  SWR 
Switch Reference & Obviative Specification (For an explanation and illustration of this suffix, see Sec. 8.1.4 and Sec. 8.1.1.7) 
Degree 1  nearest preceding referent  
Degree 2  2nd to nearest preceding referent  
Degree 3  3rd party not previously mentioned  
Degree 4  referring to sentence focus  
Degree 5  first referent mentioned  
Degree 6  referring to sentence topic  
Degree 7  3rd party nontransrelative referent  
Degree 8  2nd order transrelative referent  
Degree 9  higher order transrelative referent 
s  PLA 
Place, State, Setting Where… 
Degree 1  place where one learns to  
Degree 2  place where one does, performs, carries out X  
Degree 3  place where one obtains  
Degree 4  place where one stores or inventories  
Degree 5  place where one keeps or shelters  
Degree 6  place where one sees or views  
Degree 7  natural habitat or environment of  
Degree 8  place where one deals with/ treats/ confronts  
Degree 9  place where one feels affected by 
mm  APT 
Aspects 
Degree 1  yet, still  
Degree 2  ‘even’ as in “I don’t even like them” = in the least bit, to the slightest extent  
Degree 3  Contemplative: upon reflection/ in hindsight  
Degree 4  upon deep introspection / following careful consideration or meditation on the matter  
Degree 5  on first blush / at first / upon initial impression / [my] first thought is/was…  
Degree 6  natural(ly) / obvious(ly) / clear(ly) [in terms of naturalness, not blatancy]  
Degree 7  Experiential: ever  
Degree 8  Regressive: return to previous state  
Degree 9  Protractive: over a long period of time / longdelayed 
ňš  TEM 
Alternative Temporal Aspects 
Degree 1  Inceptive: begin to / start to  
Degree 2  Resumptive: begin again / start again / resume  
Degree 3  Continuative: keep on / still / continue / stay / yet  
Degree 4  Incessative: to X away / not stop  
Degree 5  tire of Xing / get tired of Xing / become weary of Xing  
Degree 6  Cessative: stop / discontinue / cease  
Degree 7  Pausal: take a break from [stop with intention to resume]  
Degree 8  Recessative: stop again  
Degree 9  Terminative: finish / complete 
rs / sr  PTF 
Part/Whole Functional Metaphors 
Degree 1  engine / motor / heart / pump / core / driver mechanism  
Degree 2  brain / computer / chip / instruction set  
Degree 3  input / feeder / access point  
Degree 4  exit point / anus / exhaust / tailpipe / smokestack / vent  
Degree 5  wing/ arm / branch / extensor / manipulator  
Degree 6  support / leg / stand / base  
Degree 7  skeleton / frame  
Degree 8  wiring / conduits / plumbing  
Degree 9  sensor / eye / ear / antennae 
š  PTG 
Part/Whole Gestalt Componential Metaphors 
Degree 1  “base”portion (e.g., upper arm)  
Degree 2  “extension” portion (e.g., forearm) or “flange”  
Degree 3  “trunk” or central bulk portion  
Degree 4  middle or divisional segment or joint  
Degree 5  top/upper component relative to gravity or natural vector of movement  
Degree 6  bottom/lower component relative to gravity or natural vector of movement  
Degree 7  side/flank/ lateral component  
Degree 8  “head” extension or main interface area  
Degree 9  extension/”arm” 
qt  MET 
Metonymic Categories 
Degree 1  part for whole  
Degree 2  producer for product  
Degree 3  object used or owned for user/owner  
Degree 4  controller for controlled  
Degree 5  institution for people responsible  
Degree 6  place for inhabitants/occupants  
Degree 7  place for event  
Degree 8  place for institution  
Degree 9  attribute or characteristic for owner 
Metonymy is the reference to an entity via one of its attributes, associations
or activities, as in The hamandcheese wants fries with
his order or The White House has its nose in our business.
k  SSD 
StemSpecific Derivatives 
Degree 1  derivative 1  
Degree 2  derivative 2  
Degree 3  derivative 3  
Degree 4  derivative 4  
Degree 5  derivative 5  
Degree 6  derivative 6  
Degree 7  derivative 7  
Degree 8  derivative 8  
Degree 9  derivative 9 
This suffix is used to distinguish particular instantiations of a more generic entity; their meaning is semantically specific to the particular stem.
k’  SBS 
Subset of Configurative Set 
Degree 1  single specific member (random, i.e., any given member)  
Degree 2  natural first level subset, e.g., a cell among a network, a clique within a club, a row of an orchard  
Degree 3  natural 2nd level subset, e.g., a section of a network, a subcommittee within a club, a section of an orchard  
Degree 4  complex natural system or pattern within a set (e.g., the circulatory system, the heating system)  
Degree 5  subset of set (unknown if natural or select subconfiguration)  
Degree 6  complex/circumstantial select pattern/arrangement within a set (e.g., the parts/things of a house damaged by fire)  
Degree 7  2nd level subset (externally determined), e.g., select section of trees of an orchard  
Degree 8  first level subset (externally determined), e.g., select rocks from a pile, select trees of an orchard  
Degree 9  single select member (externally determined) 
rq  SPS 
Supersets/MultiLevel Gestalts (e.g., musical note > melody > movement of musical piece > symphony/suite, etc.) 
Degree 1  3rdlevel superset/gestalt based on number nodes  
Degree 2  3rdlevel superset/gestalt based on new layer of infrastructure  
Degree 3  3rdlevel superset/gestalt based on complexity leading to the appearance/manifestaton of emergent properties  
Degree 4  2ndlevel superset/gestalt based on number nodes  
Degree 5  2ndlevel superset/gestalt based on new layer of infrastructure  
Degree 6  2ndlevel superset/gestalt based on complexity leading to the appearance/manifestaton of emergent properties  
Degree 7  4thlevel superset/gestalt based on number nodes  
Degree 8  4thlevel superset/gestalt based on new layer of infrastructure  
Degree 9  4thlevel superset/gestalt based on complexity leading to the appearance/manifestaton of emergent properties 
p’  ATN 
Degree of Attention or Determination 
Degree 1  concentrate fully upon; pay utmost attention to  
Degree 2  concentrate to point of distraction, to be ‘lost’ in Xing  
Degree 3  pay strict attention to  
Degree 4  determined to  
Degree 5  pay attention to; attend to; be careful that you…; heed  
Degree 6  keep an eye on  
Degree 7  take some notice of  
Degree 8  barely notice; take little notice of  
Degree 9  ignore completely 
šk  DPR 
Dispersion or Separability of a Configurative Set 
Degree 1  in total contact / contiguous mass of; pile, “ball of…”  
Degree 2  noncontiguous but closely connected, interlinked, each linked to adjacent via connecting medium (like web); cluster  
Degree 3  connected via intervening central medium (like a vine or branches); bunch  
Degree 4  not physically connected but with immediate accessibility and knowledge of other member actions  
Degree 5  scattered  contact with nearest member possible but less possible with others  
Degree 6  “virtual” association only  
Degree 7  temporal (iterative) set – iteration at long intervals  
Degree 8  temporal (iterative) set – iteration at frequent intervals  
Degree 9  temporal (iterative) set – iteration at very short, immediate intervals / one after another 
mb  SEP 
SpatioTemporal Separability of a Configurative Set 
Degree 1  Logical connectedness only (spatial) 

Degree 2  Loosely integrated spatially – one positioned far away from another  
Degree 3  Loosely integrated spatially – one positioned a little ways away from another  
Degree 4  Wellintegrated spatially – one positioned right next to or behind another  
Degree 5  Both spatially and temporally wellintegrated (one right after another)  
Degree 6  Wellintegrated temporally – one right after the other  
Degree 7  Loosely integrated temporally – one a little while after the other  
Degree 8  Loosely integrated temporally – one a long while after the other  
Degree 9  Logical connectedness only (temporal) 
ňk  SDP 
Subset of Duplex Set 
Degree 1  first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of duplex set or pair (e.g., upper lip, inhale/inhalation, left hand)  
Degree 2  beginning or leading “edge” of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 3  middle section of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 4  ending or trailing “edge” of the first, top, front, lefthand or lead “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 5  midpoint, peak, or lull between the 2 halves of a duplex set or pair  
Degree 6  beginning or leading “edge” of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 7  middle section of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 8  ending or trailing “edge” of 2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of a duplex event or object  
Degree 9  2nd, bottom, back, righthand or trailing “half” of duplex set or pair (e.g., lower lip, exhale/exhalation, right hand) 
xt  NEW 
Degree of Newness/Revision 
Degree 1  new = original + new, i.e., never before seen  
Degree 2  new = never before seen within current context, e.g., a new student  
Degree 3  new = role, i.e., never functioning/existing in this capacity/manner before  
Degree 4  new/other = replacement + new  
Degree 5  new/other = additional instance + new  
Degree 6  new/other = revision + additional  
Degree 7  new/other = revision + replacement  
Degree 8  new/other/different = different, not seen/used before within current context; status as addition/replacement unknown or inapplicable  
Degree 9  new/other/different = different + new; status as addition/replacement unknown or inapplicable 
ks  COS 
Comparison Specifications (Used with Levels )  see Section 6.2 and Section 6.2.5 
Degree 1  “more”/“less” = extent/amount/volume  
Degree 2  “harder”/“weaker” = degree of intensity or effort  
Degree 3  “longer”/“shorter” = duration; time spent being/doing  
Degree 4  “better”/“worse” = quality / style  
Degree 5  “more efficiently”/“less efficiently” = efficiency / effort relative to outcome  
Degree 6  “greater”/“poorer” = relevant outcome / bottomline result  
Degree 7  combo of 4, 5, and 6  
Degree 8  combo of 1, 2, and 3  
Degree 9  combo of 1 through 6 
ln / nl  WAK 
Spread/wake/trail/area/expanse created by passage of entity 
Degree 1  quasilinear “trail” or wake left behind on path of linear movement; trail or wake is not composed of the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., slime trail left by snail, footprints left on snow, mowed down foliage left by moving convoy, etc.)  
Degree 2  quasilinear spread of entity stretching behind linearly moving “head” (e.g., a line of soldiers put in place to create a front, a line left on a piece of paper as written by an ink pen, path of a ball of string or skein of yarn as it unravels while rolling down an incline)  
Degree 3  quasilinear trail/wake/spread left behind passage as line of demarcation/boundary/barrier  
Degree 4  2d quasiplanar wake left behind on path of movement; wake is not composed of the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., aftermath of a forest fire, cleaned area of dirty floor or wall after it has been wiped by a mop or dustcloth)  
Degree 5  2d quasiplanar spread stretching behind moving front (e.g., area of spreading flames in a forest fire, area being inundated by a flood, area of a wall being covered up by plaster by workmen, coating of an apple dipped in chocolate, area of floor covered up by a rug)  
Degree 6  2d quasiplanar wake/spread left behind passage as area of demarcation/zone/restricted area  
Degree 7  3d volume left behind a moving front; volume is not composed of or inundated with the moving entity itself but shows effect of its passage (e.g., area left behind the passage of a tidal wave, column of superheated air left behind the passage of a rocket  
Degree 8  3d volume inundated by spread of moving front (e.g., spread of a gas within a room, area inundated by fog, volume of a container taken up by substance placed/poured/stuffed into it)  
Degree 9  3d volume left behind passage of moving front as volume/spatial area of demarcation/zone/restricted space 
The above affix distinguishes movement of an entity from the “trail” or spread left behind, e.g., movement which leaves behind a wake or affected area; used with motion roots as well as roots designating shapes/forms. Use of the above suffixes in conjunction with the various roots pertaining to paths of translative movement allows for very nuanced translations of English words such as surround, cover, inundate, enclose, expand, spread out, encompass, etc.
šp  SCT 
Degree of Shift/Change/Transition (used for both spatial and temporal contexts) 
Degree 1  sharp break, sudden shift from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another with no discernible transition period/zone (i.e., pointlike/instantaneous transition)  
Degree 2  disjointed/noncontiguous/noncontinuous break/shift from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 3  extremely brief/small/barely discernible transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 4  somewhat brief/small/discernible transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 5  normal/standard/expected transition period or zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 6  somewhat variable/changing/fluctuating transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 7  highly variable/chaotic transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 8  smooth, gradual transition period/zone from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another  
Degree 9  very gradual/almost imperceptible rate/degree of change/transition from one state/form/shape/set of circumstances to another 
lm / ml  NNN 
nnumbered angles/facets/faces/sides/points/forms 
Degree 1  uneven /assymmetrical n–sided 2D obtusely angled form (e.g., quadrilateral, pentagonoid, hexagonoid  
Degree 2  uneven/assymetrical npointed 2D acutely angled “star” formation  
Degree 3  uneven/assymetrical nfaceted 3D solid  
Degree 4  uneven/assymmetrical nfaced 3D solid (e.g., nhedronlike solid)  
Degree 5  having n number of 3D projections/spikes/pointed surfaces  
Degree 6  symmetrical nfaced 3D solid (e.g., tetrahedron, dodecahedron)  
Degree 7  symetrical nfaceted 3D solid  
Degree 8  symetrical npointed 2D acutely angled “star” formation (can be used with numbers as low as 2, which would refer to an elongated diamond shape)  
Degree 9  symmetrical n–sided 2D form (e.g., square, pentagon, hexagon) 
The above affix is used with the number stems (see Chapter 12) to provide words for forms, shapes, and solids bearing a distinct number of angles, points, sides, facets, etc.
mļ  LVL 
Alternate forms of Comparison Operators ( Levels) (see Section 6.2.3)  V1C forms correspond to relative comparison, V2C forms to absolute comparison. 
Degree 1  EQU  EQUATIVE 
Degree 2  SUR  SURPASSIVE 
Degree 3  DFC  DEFICIENT 
Degree 4  OPT  OPTIMAL 
Degree 5  MIN  MINIMAL 
Degree 6  SPL  SUPERLATIVE 
Degree 7  IFR  INFERIOR 
Degree 8  SPQ  SUPEREQUATIVE 
Degree 9  SBE  SUBEQUATIVE 
lţ  FNS 
Material States/Forms (nonsolid / quasisolid) 
Degree 1  X as liquid  
Degree 2  X as goo or slimelike substance  
Degree 3  X as powder or dustlike substance  
Degree 4  X as gravel or sandlike substance  
Degree 5  X as gas  
Degree 6  X as wax(y) or claylike substance  
Degree 7  X as rubber(y) or eslastic substance  
Degree 8  X as flexible subtance like cotton or cloth  
Degree 9  X as flaky subtance or shavings 
lf  FMS 
Material States/Forms (solids) 
Degree 1  X as frozen  
Degree 2  X as carvable substance (like wood or soap)  
Degree 3  X as chalklike, friable substance  
Degree 4  X as rock or cementlike substance  
Degree 5  X as solid  
Degree 6  X in natural chunks or randomlyshaped solid pieces  
Degree 7  X as blocklike or formed pieces  
Degree 8  X as hardened/durable subtance  
Degree 9  X as metal(lic) 
lv  TRF 
Transformation for Use 
Degree 1  Cured (transformed by natural chemical process)  
Degree 2  Treated  
Degree 3  Processed (transformed by artificial/manmade process)  
Degree 4  Transformed via exposure to or saturation w/ other substance(s)  
Degree 5  Cooked  
Degree 6  Soaked/saturated/marinated with liquid(s)  
Degree 7  Derived (chemically or processually) from something else  
Degree 8  Fermented  
Degree 9  Pickled/Brined 
lb  CVY 
Means of Transportation/Conveyance 
Degree 1  holder / stabilizer for (transporting/holding) X  
Degree 2  mystical/magical/supernatural means for (transporting/holding) X  
Degree 3  automatic or separately controlled vehicle/vessel used for (transporting/holding) X  
Degree 4  automated/electronic means for (transporting/holding) X  
Degree 5  manually operated vessel/vehicle used for (transporting/holding) X  
Degree 6  juryrigged means for (transporting/holding) X  
Degree 7  method/practice used for (transporting/holding) X  
Degree 8  device used for (transporting/holding) X  
Degree 9  rule/regulation/bylaw for (transporting/holding) X 
lš  FEA 
Featural Properties 
Degree 1  functional mainfestation/portion/piece of X  
Degree 2  container(ful) of X  
Degree 3  a sample of X  
Degree 4  a display(ing) of X  
Degree 5  an instance of X  
Degree 6  an aspect/characteristic/trait of X  
Degree 7  a feature/function of X  
Degree 8  a highlight / key feature of X  
Degree 9  an example of X 
nļ  STG 
Stage of a Process 
Degree 1  onset/initiation/birth of X  
Degree 2  development/buildup of X  
Degree 3  point of no return/iminent transition of X  
Degree 4  plateau stage, rest or pause before next stage of X  
Degree 5  (at) peak / in prime / mature stage  
Degree 6  abrupt or premature termination of X  
Degree 7  gradual decline of X  
Degree 8  end stage / final state / terminal or last stage  
Degree 9  cessation / finished / over / dead 
lc  CGL 
Motive/Reason for Conglomeration/Coming Together of Gestalt Entity 
Degree 1  by voluntary/volitional association  
Degree 2  by appointment to the task  
Degree 3  by custom/societal convention/expectation  
Degree 4  by random chance  
Degree 5  by being forced to  
Degree 6  by being pressured  
Degree 7  by reluctant volunteering  
Degree 8  for pragmatic/utilitarian reasons  
Degree 9  by eager/enthusiastic volunteering 
lq  INB 
Inability/Incapacity Due To . . . 
Degree 1  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to absence/loss of resource(s)  
Degree 2  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to absence/loss of physical means  
Degree 3  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to absence/loss of skill/knowledge  
Degree 4  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to blockage/prevention of access to resource(s)  
Degree 5  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to blockage/prevention of access to physical means  
Degree 6  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to blockage/prevention of access to skill/knowledge  
Degree 7  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to psychological trauma  
Degree 8  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to physical trauma  
Degree 9  inability/incapacity to [perform/achieve/realize] X due to loss/absence of desire 
ff  PLE 
Degree of (Un)Pleasantness (of Effect or Result) 
Degree 1  maximally unpleasant, horrible, ghastly, terrible  
Degree 2  very unpleasant, awful  
Degree 3  unpleasant, mildly awful  
Degree 4  somewhat unpleasant, disagreeable  
Degree 5  neutral, neither pleasant nor unpleasant, bland  
Degree 6  somewhat pleasant, agreeable  
Degree 7  pleasant, a nice experience  
Degree 8  very pleasant, pleasureable  
Degree 9  maximally pleasant, very pleasureable, exstacy 
rc  ACQ 
Acquisition 
Degree 1  acquired by chance/whim/having stumbled upon  
Degree 2  acquired by mental effort/learning/study/creation  
Degree 3  acquired by informal, spurofthemoment search  
Degree 4  acquired by trickery/subterfuge  
Degree 5  innate/inherent  
Degree 6  acquired by formal search  
Degree 7  acquired by informal agreement/negotiation  
Degree 8  acquired by formally negotiated trade or deal  
Degree 9  acquired by purchase 
rf  TAL 
Degree of Capacity or Talent for... 
Degree 1  no capacity/talent for X(ing)  
Degree 2  almost no capacity/talent for X(ing)  
Degree 3  poor/little capacity/talent for X(ing)  
Degree 4  capacity/talent for X(ing)  
Degree 5  capacity/talent for X(ing)  
Degree 6  above average/good capacity/talent for X(ing)  
Degree 7  very good capacity/talent for X(ing)  
Degree 8  excellent capacity/talent for X(ing)  
Degree 9  outstanding capacity/talent for X(ing) 
rtļ  RNC 
Renunciation 
Degree 1  give up Xing / give up on X  
Degree 2  lose faith/belief in X(ing)  
Degree 3  stop trying to X  
Degree 4  undermine (efforts to) X  
Degree 5  refuse to X  
Degree 6  lose sense of resolve/commitment to X  
Degree 7  no longer have passion for X / lose passion for X  
Degree 8  lose ability to do/be/make X  
Degree 9  lack means/ability to X 
mx  DPT 
Depiction/Representation/Record 
Degree 1  symbol/emblem/logo representing/standing for X  
Degree 2  allegorical reference to X  
Degree 3  standin/substitute for X  
Degree 4  symptom/consequence of X  
Degree 5  representation/depiction/illustration of X  
Degree 6  trace/clue/vestige of X  
Degree 7  record of X  
Degree 8  pointer to/indicator of X  
Degree 9  map/blueprint/schematic diagram of X 
lč  ENG 
Degree of Engagement/Involvement 
Degree 1  avoiding X(ing) at all costs; run away from X(ing)  
Degree 2  averse to X(ing); fear X(ing)  
Degree 3  shirk involvement in X(ing); not be/get involved in  
Degree 4  to X for appearance' sake only; to X solely for show  
Degree 5  lackluster interest/involvement in X(ing)  
Degree 6  marginal interest/involvement in X(ing)  
Degree 7  limited/partial involvement in X(ing)  
Degree 8  fully involved/engrossed in X(ing)  
Degree 9  irreversibly involved/engrossed in X(ing) 
lg  OPF 
Degree of Operational Functionality 
Degree 1  disintegrated, in pieces, shattered  
Degree 2  irreparably damaged, ruined  
Degree 3  badly damaged, nonoperational, nonfunctional (with possibilty of being repaired)  
Degree 4  damaged  only partially functional (i.e., some parts/aspects are functional while others are not)  
Degree 5  something wrong with X, not functioning properly, something not right with X  
Degree 6  impaired  functional but not performing to full extent of output or efficiency  
Degree 7  in fair working order/condition  
Degree 8  in good working order/condition  
Degree 9  in optimum working order / in excellent condition 
rç  MLR 
Metalevel representation/coordination/analysis 
Degree 1  formal theory explaining/coordinating X  
Degree 2  plan explaining/coordinating X  
Degree 3  idea explaining/coordinating X  
Degree 4  folk theory or accepted societal convention explaining/coordinating X  
Degree 5  illustration/picture/graphic representation explaining/coordinating X  
Degree 6  physical model explaining/coordinating X  
Degree 7  mathematical model explaining/coordinating X  
Degree 8  logical model explaining/coordinating X  
Degree 9  metaphorical representation of X 
rp  HG1 
Linguistic Hedges (1st group) 
Degree 1  more or less 

Degree 2  for all practical purposes / to all intents and purposes / practically / virtually/all but technically 

Degree 3  sort of / kind of 

Degree 4  strictly speaking 

Degree 5  essentially / in essence / basically 

Degree 6  might as well be 

Degree 7  in one sense 

Degree 8  in some sense 

Degree 9  par excellence 
lp  HG2 
Linguistic Hedges (2nd group) 
Degree 1  in a sense / in a way 

Degree 2  in a manner of speaking 

Degree 3  more of a ___ than anything else 

Degree 4  (what can be looked at (as) / (what) can be viewed as / (what) one thinks of (as) / one might say that 

Degree 5  loosely speaking 

Degree 6  socalled 

Degree 7  in name only 

Degree 8  so to say 

Degree 9  for all I know / for all one knows 
rn  PHS 
Alternative suffix forms for Phase categories (see Sec. 5.5) 
Degree 1  Contextual  
Degree 2  Punctual  
Degree 3  Iterative  
Degree 4  Repetitive  
Degree 5  Intermittent  
Degree 6  Recurrent  
Degree 7  Frequentative  
Degree 8  Fragmentative  
Degree 9  Fluctuative 
rš / šr  LCT 
Locational Octant Markers for Object Being Located (see Section 10.3.3) 
Degree 1  +X / +Y / +Z = “right / ahead / above” = Octant 1  
Degree 2  +X / +Y / Z = “right / ahead / below” = Octant 2  
Degree 3  +X / Y / +Z = “right / behind / above” = Octant 3  
Degree 4  +X / Y / Z = “right / behind / below” = Octant 4  
Degree 5  object at rest relative to other object  
Degree 6  X / +Y / +Z = “left / ahead / above” = Octant 5  
Degree 7  X / +Y / Z = “left / ahead / below” = Octant 6  
Degree 8  X / Y / +Z = “left / behind / above” = Octant 7  
Degree 9  X / Y / Z = “left / behind / below” = Octant 8 
bz  PXM 
Degree of Proximity 
Degree 1  too close  
Degree 2  as close as possible without contact  
Degree 3  very close to  
Degree 4  close to  
Degree 5  somewhat close to  
Degree 6  not very close to / somewhat far from  
Degree 7  far from / distant from  
Degree 8  far away / very far from  
Degree 9  too far away 
gz  CTC 
Degree of Contact 
Degree 1  melded with / blended with / fused  
Degree 2  inseparable(ly) / locked together / bonded  
Degree 3  linked / attached / connected / joined  
Degree 4  touching intimately / touching all over / flush with / in close contact with  
Degree 5  deliberately touching at several spots or places or over a fair area  
Degree 6  deliberately touching at one spot or place  
Degree 7  casually or incidentally touching at several spots or places or over a fair area  
Degree 8  casually or incidentally touching at one spot or place  
Degree 9  barely touching / hardly touching at all / touching at one small spot 
rb  VWP 
From Viewpoint/Perspective of 
Degree 1  from viewpoint/perspective of speaker  
Degree 2  from viewpoint/perspective of 3rd party visible/near to speaker  
Degree 3  from viewpoint/perspective of the lastmentioned argument/referent  
Degree 4  from viewpoint/perspective of a party other than one under discussion  
Degree 5  from viewpoint/perspective of 3rd party under discussion  
Degree 6  from viewpoint/perspective of an asyetundetermined 3rd party  
Degree 7  from viewpoint/perspective of the firstmentioned argument/referent  
Degree 8  from viewpoint/perspective of 3rd party visible/near to listener  
Degree 9  from viewpoint/perspective of listener 
These VxC suffixes were first mentioned in Section 6.4.3 and are used in conjunction with the Vf Format/Context suffix in Slot XII to accomplish the following:
Twelve consonant forms are used for these Slot XI suffixes, which combine with the three suffixtypes to give the 36 forms necessary to specify the nine possible configurations and four possible perspectives of the incorporated stem. In turn, the nine suffixdegrees times eight vocalic Vf suffixes in Slot XII combine to identify which of the 72 primary noun cases constitutes the Format of the incorporated stem. All these forms are shown in the matrices below.
Perspective & Configuration of Incorporated Stem – Shown by VxC value
PERSPECTIVE 
CONFIGURATION 

1 UNI 
2 DPX 
3 DCT 
4 AGG 
5 SEG 
6 CPN 
7 COH 
8 CST 
9 MLT 

M 
V1tt 
V2tt 
V3tt 
V1st’ 
V2st’ 
V3st’ 
V1št’ 
V2št’ 
V3št’ 
U 
V1pk 
V2pk 
V3pk 
V1sp’ 
V2sp’ 
V3sp’ 
V1šp’ 
V2šp’ 
V3šp’ 
N 
V1qq 
V2qq 
V3qq 
V1sq’ 
V2sq’ 
V3sq’ 
V1šq’ 
V2šq’ 
V3šq’ 
A 
V1tk 
V2tk 
V3tk 
V1sk’ 
V2sk’ 
V3sk’ 
V1šk’ 
V2šk’ 
V3šk’ 
Expanded Format Corresponding to Case – Shown by VXC suffix degree x Vf suffix value

degree 


degree 


degree 


degree 

1 OBL 
1 
* 
19 PAR 
1 
ISR 
37 CMM 
1 
RSL 
55 DFF 
1 
CCM 
2 IND 
2 
20 CRS 
2 
38 COM 
2 
56 PER 
2 

3 ABS 
3 
21 CPS 
3 
39 CNJ 
3 
57 PRO 
3 

4 ERG 
4 
22 PRD 
4 
40 UTL 
4 
58 PCV 
4 

5 EFF 
5 
23 MED 
5 
41 ABE 
5 
59 PCR 
5 

6 AFF 
6 
24 APL 
6 
42 CVS 
6 
60 ELP 
6 

7 DAT 
7 
25 PUR 
7 
43 COR 
7 
61 ALP 
7 

8 INS 
8 
26 CSD 
8 
44 DEP 
8 
62 INP 
8 

9 ACT 
9 
27 ESS 
9 
45 PVS 
9 
63 EPS 
9 

10 DER 
1 
SCH 
28 ASI 
1 
ATH 
46 PTL 
1 
SBQ 
64 PLM 
1 
OBJ 
11 SIT 
2 
29 FUN 
2 
47 CON 
2 
65 LIM 
2 

12 POS 
3 
30 TFM 
3 
48 EXC 
3 
66 LOC 
3 

13 PRP 
4 
31 REF 
4 
49 AVR 
4 
67 ORI 
4 

14 GEN 
5 
32 CLA 
5 
50 CMP 
5 
68 PSV 
5 

15 ATT 
6 
33 CNV 
6 
51 SML 
6 
69 ALL 
6 

16 PDC 
7 
34 IDP 
7 
52 ASS 
7 
70 ABL 
7 

17 ITP 
8 
35 BEN 
8 
53 CNR 
8 
71 NAV 
8 

18 OGN 
9 
36 TSP 
9 
54 ACS 
9 
72 VOC 
9 
* the default Vf suffix form is used (i.e., a, i, e, or u, depending on the formative’s Context)
Proceed to Chapter 8: Adjuncts >>
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